Table of Contents


    Lutz Richter-Bernburg

    (of men; ḵaṣī kardan, ḵāya kešīdan, ḵᵛāja kardan), discussion of castration in Islamic medical literature, on its legal status, and on its historical attestation in Islamic Persia.

  • CAT I. In Mythology and Folklore

    Mahmud Omidsalar

    Cats are not mentioned in literary Persian sources until late Sasanian times. In Zoroastrian mythology the cat (gurbag) is said to have been created by the Evil Spirit, and in the Pahlavi texts it is classed in the much despised “wolf species.” 

  • CAT II. Persian Cat

    Jean-Pierre Digard

    In western Europe and in North America, what are called “Persian cats” are a breed of longhaired domestic cats with a massive body, measuring 40 to 50 cm in length, and up to 30 cm in the height of their withers. According to the standards, these cats must present a strong bone structure, important muscular masses, and short, straight paws.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.




    Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    treatises for instruction in the fundamental tenets of a religious faith, cast in the form of questions and answers.


    J. L M. van Schaik

    Manichaeism is said to have been passed via the Paulicians and the Bogomils to re-emerge in the European Cathars but this supposed historical transmission is difficult to demonstrate.

  • ČATR

    Eleanor Sims

    parasol or umbrella, an attribute of royalty in Iran.


    Jean-Pierre Digard, Mary Boyce

    the word “cattle” has no precise equivalent in Iranian languages, in which bovines are commonly designated by the words for “cow,” “bull,” and “calf."


    Multiple Authors

    CAUCASUS AND IRAN. The Iranian world is bordered in the northwest by the high mountain barrier of the Caucasus, which separates it from the vast Russian plains beyond. In relief, structure, and ecology the Caucasus constitutes a clear frontier between eastern Europe and western Asia, though it is more closely related to the latter.

  • CAUCASUS i. Physical Geography, Population, and Economy.

    Pierre Thorez

    The northern side of the range consists of a series of monoclinal folds, in the form of cuestas, with escarpments facing toward the main chain and the more gradual back slopes fanning out into plateaus of varying sizes, all inclining toward the north at angles of from 5 to 15 degrees.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.