Table of Contents


    Beatrice Manz, Masashi Haneda

    (Cherkes), term used in Persian, Arabic, and Turkic for the Circassian people of the northwest Caucasus who call themselves Adygeĭ and speak a language of the Abazgo-Circassian branch of Caucasian (see caucasian languages).

  • ČARḴĪ, Mawlānā Yaʿqūb

    Hamid Algar

    an early shaikh of the Naqšbandī order and author of several works in Persian (d. 851/1447).

  • ČARM

    Willem M. Floor

    (Av. čarəman-, OPers. čarman-, Khot. tcārman-, etc.), skin, hide, and leather, which have had a variety of uses in Persia.


    Rüdiger Schmitt

    ancient region east of Fārs province, approximately equivalent to modern Kermān. The Old Persian form is attested only once in inscriptions.


    Farhad Daftary

    (Ar. Qarāmeṭa; sing. Qarmaṭī), the name given to the adherents of a branch of the Ismaʿili movement during the 3rd/9th century.


    Francis Richard

    In 1604 Pope Clement VIII dispatched a mission of Discalced Carmelite fathers to Persia; the embassy represented the culmination of a policy of seeking alliances against the Ottoman empire that had been initiated by Pius V.

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    or čāroq, etc. See CLOTHING xx, xxv, xxviii.


    Multiple Authors

    (qālī; Ar. and Pers. farš), heavy textiles used as coverings for floors, walls, and other large surfaces, as well as for various kinds of furnishing.

  • CARPETS i. Introductory survey

    Roger Savory

    the history of Persian carpet manufacture.

  • CARPETS ii. Raw materials and dyes

    Jasleen Dhamija

    for centuries Persian carpet weaving has depended primarily on local materials processed by traditional traditional techniques. Such materials include sheep wool, camel hair, goat hair, and natural dyes. This article discusses use and preparation of dyes and materials used to make carpets.