Table of Contents

  • BAḴTĪĀR, ABŪ ḤARB

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    B. MOḤAMMAD, the patron of the poet Manūčehrī (d. 1040-41) who praised his bravery, nobility, magnanimity, learning, and eloquence.

  • BAḴTĪĀR, TEYMŪR

    S. Zabih

    (1914-1970), Iranian general. His meteoric rise to power began after the fall of Moṣaddeq in August, 1953, when he was called to Tehran, promoted to brigadier general, and put in charge of Tehran’s military governorship.

  • BAḴTĪĀR-NĀMA

    W. L. Hanaway, Jr.

    an example of early New Persian prose fiction in the form of a frame story and nine included tales, the earliest version of which seems to be from the late 12th-early 13th centuries.

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ (1)

    ʿA.-A. Saʿīdī Sīrjānī, J.-P. Digard, ʿA.-Ḥ. Navāʾī

    the nesba of a number of Baḵtīārī chiefs.

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ (2)

    cross-reference

    in music, a gūša. See HOMĀYŪN.

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ MOUNTAINS

    E. Ehlers

    The impressive basin-range-structure of the Baḵtīārī mountains, a result of the geological development of the Zagros system since late Cretaceous time and culminating in the orogenesis of Tertiary upfolding, is accentuated by the complicated and unique drainage system, which itself is the result of geology and topography.

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  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ TRIBE

    J.-P. Digard, G. L. Windfuhr, A. Ittig

    The traditional Baḵtīārī way of life is typical of the long-distance nomadism which evolved in the Zagros highlands from the thirteenth century onward, at first under the impact of the Mongol invasions, probably attaining its present form during the eighteenth century, in a defensive reaction against increasing fiscal and administrative pressures experienced under successive Iranian régimes.

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  • BAḴTĪĀRĪS of AFGHANISTAN

    D. Balland

    two small Paṧtō-speaking groups in the eastern part of the Irano-Afghan area bearing the name Baḵtīārī or Baḵtīār.

  • BAKTOḠDĪ

    cross-reference

    See BEKTOḠDĪ.

  • BAKU

    S. Soucek, R. G. Suny

    (Pers. Bādkūba), capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan and one of the chief ports on the Caspian sea.

  • BAKWĀ, DAŠT-E

    D. Balland

    an extensive piedmont alluvial plain in the southwest of Afghanistan, drained by one of the Sīstān rivers, the Ḵospāsrūd. In past times it enjoyed a measure of prosperity based on qanāt irrigation.

  • BĀLĀBĀN

    Ch. Albright

    a cylindrical-bore, double-reed wind instrument about 35 cm long with seven finger holes and one thumb hole, played in eastern Azerbaijan in Iran and in the Republic of Azerbaijan.

  • BALADĪYA

    N. Parvīn

    (Municipality), the name or part of the name of several newspapers and journals published in Iran and Afghanistan ca. 1907-39.

  • BALĀḎORĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    , ABU’L-ḤASAN or ABŪ BAKR AḤMAD B. YAḤYĀ B. JĀBER, leading Arab historian of the 9th century, whose Ketāb fotūḥ al-boldān, in particular, contains much original information on the Arab conquests of Iran.

  • BALĀḠAT

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (Ar. balāḡa), one of the most general terms to denote eloquence in speech and writing. The branches of literary criticism which developed within Muslim civilization became known collectively as the science (ʿelm) or art (ṣenāʿa) of balāḡat.

  • BALĀḠĪ, MOḤAMMAD-JAWĀD

    E. Kohlberg

    B. ḤASAN B. ṬĀLEB B. ʿABBĀS RABAʿĪ NAJAFĪ (d. 1933), Imami author, poet, and polemicist.

  • BALʿAMĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ MOḤAMMAD

    cross-reference

    B. MOḤAMMAD. See AMĪRAK BALʿAMĪ.

  • BALʿAMĪ, ABU’L-FAŻL MOḤAMMAD

    C. E. Bosworth

    B. ʿOBAYD-ALLĀH B. MOḤAMMAD BALʿAMĪ TAMĪMĪ, vizier to the Samanid amir Naṣr b. Aḥmad (r. 913-42), father of the vizier and historian Amirak Baḷʿamī.

  • BĀLANG

    W. Eilers

    citron, the fruit of a species of citrus tree (Citrus medica cedrata). This article discusses the history of the word.

  • BALĀŠ

    M. L. Chaumont, K. Schippmann

    the name of a number of kings and several dignitaries and notables during the Parthian and Sasanian periods. The Parthian form of the name, the oldest, is Walagaš. In Middle Persian it is Wardāxš, in Pahlavi Walāxš.

  • BALĀSAGĀN

    M. L. Chaumont, C. E. Bosworth

     “country of the Balās,” designating a region located for the most part south of the lower course of the rivers Kor (Kura) and the Aras (Araxes), bordered on the south by Atropatene and on the east by the Caspian Sea.  i. In pre-Islamic times.  ii. In Islamic times.

  • BALĀSĀḠŪN

    C. E. Bosworth

    a town of Central Asia, in early Islamic times the main settlement of the region known as Yeti-su or Semirechye “the land of the seven rivers,” now mainly within the eastern part of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  • BALĀSĀNĪ, MAJD-AL-MOLK ABU’L-FAŻL ASʿAD

    C. E. Bosworth

    B. MOḤAMMAD QOMĪ (d. 1099), mostawfī or financial intendant to the Saljuq sultan Berk-yaruq (Barkīāroq) b. Malekšāh and then vizier.

  • BĀLĀSARĪ

    D. M. MacEoin

    term used by the Shaikhis to distinguish ordinary Shiʿites from members of their own sect. The history of conflicts between the Shaikhi and Shiʿite communities is reviewed.

  • BĀLAVĪ

    cross-reference

    See BĀLAWĪ FAMILY.

  • BALAWASTE

    G. Gropp

    a ruin site in the eastern part of the Khotan oasis, near the village of Domoko. Fragments of manuscripts, pottery, and plaster were found at this site by Sir Mark Aurel Stein on his first and second expeditions in 1900.

  • BĀLAWĪ FAMILY

    R. W. Bulliet

    prominent scholars in Nīšāpūr in the 10th-11th centuries.

  • BALDARČĪN

    cross-reference

    See BELDERČĪN.

  • BĀLEḠ

    S. H. Amin

    Ar. “of full age, adult, mature,” in contrast to the term ṣaḡīr (minor): coming of age in Islamic law.

  • BALḴ

    X. de Planhol, C. E. Bosworth, V. Fourniau, D. Balland, F. Grenet

    Within this area and on the irrigated alluvial fan, at a distance of about 12 km from the mountains, the city was built on a site (the Bālā Ḥeṣār of today) which was probably coextensive with a slight rise in the plain and perhaps adjacent to an old arm of the river.

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  • BALḴĀB

    D. Balland

    (Bactros of the classical authors), the river of Balḵ. This perennial river is a major feature of the geography of northern Afghanistan.

  • BALḴĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ ABD-ALLĀH

    H. Schützinger

    B. MOḤAMMAD B. ʿALĪ (d. 907-08), a traditionist (moḥaddeṯ) and author.

  • BALḴĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ-MOḤAMMAD

    cross-reference

    B. AḤMAD. See ʿALĪ B. AḤMAD BALḴĪ.

  • BALḴI, ABU’L-MOʾAYYAD

    Cross-Reference

    See ABU’l-MOʾAYYAD BALḴI.

  • BALḴĪ, ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿABD-ALLĀH AḤMAD

    cross-reference

    B. AḤMAD. See ABU’L-QĀSEM KAʿBĪ.

  • BALUCHISTAN

    Multiple Authors

    generally understood by the Baluch and their neighbors to comprise an area of over half a million square kilometers in the southeastern part of the Iranian plateau, south of the central deserts and the Helmand river, and in the arid coastal lowlands between the Iranian plateau and the Gulf of Oman.

  • BALUCHISTAN i. Geography, History and Ethnography

    Brian Spooner

    Baluchistan is generally understood by the Baluch and their neighbors to comprise an area of over half a million square kilometers in the southeastern part of the Iranian plateau, south of the central deserts and the Helmand river, and in the arid coastal lowlands between the Iranian plateau and the Gulf of Oman.

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  • BALUCHISTAN i. Geography, History and Ethnography (cont.)

    Brian Spooner

    appears to have been divided throughout history between Iranian (highland) and Indian (lowland) spheres of influence, and since 1870 it has been formally divided among Afghanistan, Iran, and India (later Pakistan). Parts 8-11.

  • BALUCHISTAN ii. Archeology

    J. G. Shaffer

    may have been inhabited first during the Pleistocene as proposed by Hume (1976), based on Paleolithic sites found in the Ladiz valley.

  • BALUCHISTAN iii. Baluchi Language and Literature

    J. Elfenbein

    Baluchi is the principal language of an area extending from the Marv (Mary) oasis in Soviet Turkmenistan southward to the Persian Gulf, from Persian Sīstān eastward along the Helmand valley in Afghanistan, throughout Pakistani Makrān eastward nearly to the Indus river, including in the south the city of Karachi.

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  • BALUCHISTAN iiia. Balochi Poetry

    Joseph Elfenbein

    divided into 4 periods: (1) classical, from ca. 1550-1700; (2) post-classical, from 1700-1800; (3) 19th century to early 20th century; (4) modern, after ca. 1930.

  • BALUCHISTAN iv. Music of Baluchistan

    M. T. Massoudieh

    usually connected with particular ceremonies (marāsem), usually religious rites, festivals, or holidays. The relationships between melodies and particular ceremonies are reflected in their names.

  • BALUCHISTAN v. Baluch Carpets

    S. Azadi

    a distinct group of carpets, woven by Baluch tribes in the northeastern Iranian province of Khorasan and the Sīstān area. These were not made in Makrān, where the main body of the Baluch tribes live.

  • BALŪHAR O BŪDĀSAF

    cross-reference

    See BARLAAM AND IOSAPH.

  • BALŪṬ

    H. Aʿlam

    common designation in New Persian both for acorn and oak, Quercus L. In west and southwest Iran, where well-defined stands of oak exist, their total surface area has been estimated at 3,448,000 hectares, divided into two main areas: west Kurdistan and the Sardašt region, and on the southwestern slopes of the Zagros.

  • BALYSA-

    H. W. Bailey

    (Khotan Saka), bārza- (Tumšuq Saka), a word adapted to Buddhist use for the transcendental Buddha, translating Buddhist Sanskrit buddha- and also several epithets of the Buddha.

  • BĀLYŪZĪ, ḤASAN MOWAQQAR

    M. Momen

    (1908-1980), Bahai author and administrator.

  • BAM (1)

    W. Eilers

    (also written bām) “bass,” the lowest-pitched string in music. The etymology is discussed.

  • BAM (2)

    X. De Planhol, M.-E Bāstānī Pārīzī

    (in Arabic, Bamm), a town in southeastern Iran, located on the southwestern rim of the Dašt-e Lūt basin at an altitude of 1,100 m. i. History and modern town. ii. Ruins of the old town.

  • BAM EARTHQUAKE

    Manuel Berberian

    OF DECEMBER 26, 2003  A moderate-magnitude (Mw 6.6) earthquake struck the city of Bam and its surroundings at 05:26 AM local time (01:56 GMT) on Friday, 5 Dey 1382 Š./26 December 2003, resulting in the highest casualty rate and the most profound social impact in the recorded post-1900 history of devastating urban earthquakes in Iran.

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