Table of Contents

  • BAHMANŠĪR

    X. de Planhol

    the name of the distributary which branches off the left bank of the Kārūn river in the Ḵūzestān plain a short distance above Ḵorramšahr, and of a dehestān near this town.

  • BAHMANYĀR, AḤMAD

    J. Matīnī

    scholar, educator, and man of letters (1884-1955). His written works are characterized by clarity and simplicity of language.

  • BAHMANYĀR, KĪĀ

    H. Daiber

    RAʾĪS ABU’L-ḤASAN B. MARZBĀN AʿJAMĪ ĀḎARBĀYJĀNĪ (d. 1066), one of Ebn Sīnā’s pupils and known mainly as a commentator and transmitter of Ebn Sīnā’s philosophy.

  • BAḤR

    cross-reference

    See BAḤR-E ṬAWĪL.

  • BAḤR-AL-ʿOLŪM

    H. Algar

    (1155/1742-1212/1797), a Shiʿite scholar who exercised great influence both in Iraq and in Iran through the numerous students he trained.  

  • BAḤR-E ḴAZAR

    cross-reference

    ḴAZAR. See CASPIAN SEA.

  • BAḤR-E ḴᵛĀRAZM

    cross-reference

    See ARAL SEA.

  • BAḤR-E ʿOMĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See OMAN, SEA OF.

  • BAḤR-E ṬAWĪL

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    a type of Persian verse. generally the repetition of a whole foot (rokn) of the meter hazaj (ᴗ - - -) or of a whole foot of the meter ramal (- ᴗ - -) or a variation of the two.

  • BAHRA

    P. Clawson and W. Floor

    a term meaning “share,” “gain,” or “profit,” used within the economic context of Islamic Iran to mean “return on investment or production.”

  • BAHRAIN

    X. De Planhol, X. De Planhol, J. A. Kechichian

    Ar. Baḥrayn, lit. “two seas,” the name originally applied to the area of the northeastern Arabian peninsula now known as Ḥasā (Aḥsāʾ). i. Geography. ii. Shiʿite elements in Bahrain. iii. History of political relations with Iran.

  • BAHRĀM (1)

    G. Gnoli, P. Jamzadeh

    the Old Iranian god of victory, Avestan Vərəθraγna (“smiting of resistance”);  Middle Persian Warahrān, frequently used as a male proper name.

  • BAHRĀM (2)

    A. Sh. Shahbazi, O. Klíma, W. L. Hanaway, Jr.

    Bahrām was fond of fighting, hunting, and feasting, which he regarded as virtues. Sasanian-based sources praised him as a benevolent and worthy king. This was no doubt partly due to his reversal of Šāpūr’s policy of religious tolerance, which enabled the clergy led by Kardēr to proceed with the establishment of a Zoroastrian state church.

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  • BAHRĀM (3)

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    son of GŌDARZ, in the Šāh-nāma a hero in the reigns of Kay Kāōs and Kay Ḵosrow, renowned for his valiant service in all the wars.

  • BAHRĀM B. MARDĀNŠĀH

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    a Zoroastrian priest (mōbed) of the town of Šāpūr in Fārs, mentioned in several Arabic and Persian sources as a translator of the Xwadāy-nāmag from Pahlavi into Arabic.

  • BAHRĀM MĪRZĀ

    P. Soucek

    (1517-49), youngest son of Shah Esmāʿīl, full brother of Shah Ṭahmāsb, who relied on his loyalty and military valor for assistance against both his internal and external enemies.

  • BAHRĀM MĪRZĀ, MOʿEZZ-AL-DAWLA

    ʿA. Navāʾī

    (d. 1882), second son of the crown prince ʿAbbās Mīrzā, minor figure in military affairs and administration.

  • BAHRĀM newspaper

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    newspaper in Tehran, 1943-47.

  • BAHRĀM O GOLANDĀM

    cross-reference

    See KĀTEBĪ.

  • BAHRĀM PAŽDŪ

    Ž. Āmūzgār

    Zoroastrian poet of the 13th century. His only surviving poem celebrates spring, Nowrūz and those who had propagated the Zoroastrian religion.

  • BAHRĀM SĪĀVOŠĀN

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (Bahrām son of Sīāvoš), in the Šāh-nāma a supporter of Bahrām Čōbīn in the power struggle during the reigns of Hormozd IV (578-90) and Ḵosrow II Parvēz (590-628).

  • BAHRĀMĪ SARAḴSĪ

    Z. Safa

    , ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ, Persian poet and literary scholar, one of the many at the court at Ḡazna in the reigns of Sultan Maḥmūd (r. 998-1030) and his sons.

  • BAHRĀMĪ, FARAJ-ALLĀH

    M. Amānat

    , DABĪR AʿẒAM (1878/79?-1951), Reżā Shah’s personal secretary and an early supporter who played a key role in Reżā Shah’s control of absolute power.

  • BAHRĀMŠĀH B. MASʿŪD (III)

    C. E. Bosworth

    B. EBRĀHĪM, ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR, Ghaznavid sultan in eastern Afghanistan and northwestern India (r. 1117-1157?).

  • BAHRĀMŠĀH B. ṬOḠRELŠĀH

    Cross-Reference

    See SALJUQS OF KERMĀN.

  • BAHRĀMŠĀH SHROFF

    cross-reference

    See BEHRAMSHAH NAOROJI SHROFF.

  • BAḤRĀNĪ, AḤMAD

    E. Kohlberg

    B. MOḤAMMAD B. YŪSOF B. ṢĀLEḤ (d. 1690-91), described as the leading representative in his generation of Imami Shiʿite scholarship in Bahrain.

  • BAḤRĀNĪ, HĀŠEM

    W. Madelung

    B. SOLAYMĀN (d. 1695-96), Imami Shiʿite scholar and author. The number of his books and treatises is said to have approached seventy-five.

  • BAḤRĀNĪ, JAMĀL-AL-DĪN

    W. Madelung

    (also KAMĀL-AL-DĪN) ʿALĪ B. SOLAYMĀN SETRAWĪ, Imami Shiʿite scholar and philosopher inclining to mysticism (13th century).

  • BAḤRĀNĪ, YŪSOF

    E. Kohlberg

    B. AḤMAD B. EBRĀHĪM DERĀZĪ (b. 1695-96, d. 1772), Imami Shiʿite author and jurisprudent.

  • BAḤRAYN

    cross-reference

    See BAHRAIN.

  • BAḤRĪ, MAḤMŪD

    R. M. Eaton

    Sufi and poet of the Deccan (fl. late 17th century).

  • BAIDU

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀYDŪ.

  • BAIEV, GAPPO

    cross-reference

    See BAYATI, GAPPO.

  • BAILEY, HAROLD WALTER

    John Sheldon

    Harold Bailey's first two undergraduate years were highly successful and, no doubt for financial reasons, he took an appointment at the beginning of his third year as an Assistant Master at Guildford Grammar School. One of his former pupils paid tribute in a book of school reminiscences to Bailey’s ability to inspire him to love ancient history.

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  • BĀJ (1)

    A. V. Williams

    a principal Zoroastrian observance meaning primarily “utterance of consecration;” reference to bāj has been current in Mazdean literature since at least Sasanian times,

  • BĀJ (2)

    W. Floor

    a term denoting tribute to be paid by vassals to their overlord, in which sense it is also used as a generic term “tax,” or as referring to road tolls.

  • BĀJALĀN

    P. Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe in the dehestāns of Qūratū, Ḏohāb and Jagarlū in the šahrestān of Qaṣr-e Šīrīn, on the Iraqi border.

  • BĀJARVĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    a town in the medieval Islamic province of Mūḡān, the area southwest of the Caspian Sea and south of the Kor (Kura) and Aras (Araxes) rivers.

  • BĀḴARZ

    C. E. Bosworth

    or Govāḵarz, a district of the medieval Islamic province of Qūhestān/Qohestān in Khorasan.

  • BĀḴARZĪ, ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿALĪ

    Z. Safa

    Iranian littérateur of the 11th century who composed poems in both Persian and Arabic, notable in the art of letter-writing (tarassol).

  • BAKHSHIEV MISHI

    M. Zand

    (1910-1972), Judeo-Tat author.

  • BAḴŠĪ

    P. Jackson

    a Buddhist lama or scholar, in particular during Mongol hegemony in Iran; subsequently, by extension, any kind of scribe or secretary.

  • BAḴT

    W. Eilers, S. Shaked

    “fate, destiny,” often with the positive sense of “good luck” (ḵᵛošbaḵtī).  i. The term.  ii. The concept.

  • BAḴTAGĀN LAKE

    E. Ehlers

    part of the Lake Nīrīz basin situated about 1,525 m above sea level in the province of Fārs, approximately 50 km east of Shiraz.  At present, it is common to divide the basin of the Nīrīz into a northern portion (daryāča-ye Ṭašk) and a larger southern part (daryāča-ye Baḵtagān).

  • BAḴTAK

    F. Gaffary

    a folkloric she-creature of horrible shape, personifying a nightmare. Baḵtak resembles the Āl, another “female devil” of Iranian folklore.

  • BĀḴTAR (1)

    A. Tafażżolī

    designation of the geographical “west” in Modern Persian, but its Pahlavi equivalent abāxtar means “north,” probably borrowed from Parthian.

  • BĀḴTAR (2)

    N. Parvīn

    name of an educational magazine (Isfahan, 1933-35) and a political newspaper (Isfahan and Tehran, 1935-45).

  • BĀḴTAR-E EMRŪZ

    ʿA. M. Š. Fāṭemī

    (Today’s West), daily evening newspaper published in Tehran, 1949-53. The editor-publisher Ḥosayn Fāṭemī (1917-1954) was one of the principal associates of Dr. Moḥammad Moṣaddeq in the National Front (Jebha-ye Mellī).

  • BAḴTĀVAR KHAN, MOḤAMMAD

    S. S. Alvi

    (1620?-85), historian and official at the court of the Mughal emperor Awrangzēb (r. 1658-1707) and a patron of literature.