Table of Contents

  • BAGHDAD PACT

    J. A. Kechichian

    popular name for the 1955 pro-Western defense alliance between Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom.

  • BAGINA

    F. Grenet

    reconstructed Old Iranian word for a temple housing a cult image; and BAGINAPATI, the master of such a temple. They have descendants in various Middle Iranian languages.

  • BAḠLĀN

    A. D. H. Bivar, D. Balland, X. de Planhol

    The temple excavated at this site appeared to be a fire-temple of dynastic character, dedicated for the rulers of the Kushan dynasty. It was founded perhaps early in the reign of Kanishka, and restored in the year 31 of a different era, probably of Kanishka I’s own enthronement.

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  • BAGŌAS

    M. Dandamayev

    the chief eunuch and general under the Achaemenid Artaxerxes III, and kingmaker of his successors.

  • BAGRATIDS

    C. Toumanoff

    The partition of Armenia in 387 into an Iranian and a Roman vassal state, then the annexation of the Western kingdom by the Empire, and finally the abolition of the East Armenian Monarchy in 428 placed these princes in the necessity of choosing between the two rival imperial allegiances.

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  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DAWLA, ABŪ NAṢR FĪRŪZ

    cross-reference

    See BUYIDS.

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN ʿĀMELĪ

    E. Kohlberg

    , SHAIKH MOḤAMMAD B. ḤOSAYN BAHĀʾĪ, Imami scholar and author, a prolific writer, in Imami circles regarded as one of the leading lights of his age (1547-1621).

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN BAḠDĀDĪ

    Z. Safa

    , MOḤAMMAD B. MOʾAYYAD, a master of the art of Persian letter-writing (tarassol) (d. after 1289).

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN ḴARAQĪ

    D. Pingree

    , ABŪ BAKR MOḤAMMAD (d. 1138-39), author of a work was on astronomy, geography, and chronology.

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN MOḤAMMAD WALAD

    H. Algar

    B. ḤOSAYN B. AḤMAD ḴAṬĪB BALḴĪ (1151-1231), scholar, father of the great Sufi poet Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Dīn Rūmī.

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN NAQŠBAND

    H. Algar

    , ḴᵛĀJA MOḤAMMAD B. MOḤAMMAD BOḴĀRĪ (1318-91), eponym of the Naqšbandīya, one of the most vigorous and widespread Sufi orders.

  • BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN SOLṬĀN WALAD

    M. I. Waley

    , MOḤAMMAD (1226-1312), Sufi shaikh and poet, son and eventual successor of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Dīn Rūmī.

  • BAHĀʾ-ALLĀH

    Juan Cole

    (1817-92), MĪRZĀ ḤOSAYN-ʿALĪ NŪRĪ,  founder of the Bahai religion or Bahaism. 

  • BAHĀDOR

    C. Fleischer

    a Turco-Mongol honorific title, attached to a personal name, signifying “hero, valiant warrior.”

  • BAHĀDOR JANG, AMIR

    A. Gheissari

    , ḤOSAYN PASHA KHAN, the head of the royal guards (kešīkčībāšī) and minister of court under Moẓaffar-al-Dīn Shah (r. 1896-1907).

  • BAHĀDOR KHAN

    cross-reference

    See ABŪ ḠĀZĪ.

  • BAHĀDOR SHAH I, II

    cross-reference

    See MUGHALS.

  • BAHĀʾI TABRIZI

    Tahsin Yazici

    , AḤMAD (1874-1925), Persian calligrapher and poet.

  • BAHAISM

    Multiple Authors

    or Bahai faith, a religion founded in the nineteenth century by Bahāʾ-Allāh that grew out of the Iranian messianic movement of Babism and developed into a world religion with internationalist and pacifist emphases.

  • BAHAISM xiv. Nineteen Day Feast

    Moojan Momen

    a gathering of the Bahai community every nineteen days that has devotional, administrative, and social aspects and is the core of community life.