Table of Contents

  • ASSYRIA

    M. Dandamayev and È. Grantovskiĭ, M. Dandamayev, K. Schippmann

    i. The Kingdom of Assyria and its relations with Iran. ii. Achaemenid Aθurā. iii. Parthian Assur.

  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN

    R. Macuch, A. Ishaya

    The ancient name “Assyrian,” derived from that of the god Aššur, designated the Semitic population of north Mesopotamia and their capital city. Even before the final destruction of the Assyrian empire in 612 B.C., its population had become largely Aramaic-speaking; knowledge of its ancient language, Akkadian, had become restricted to the educated people and to scribes.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ASTABED

    M. L. Chaumont

    The word astabid occurs in two Syriac texts as the title of a high-ranking Iranian officer and is applied to three different individuals.

  • ĀŠTĀD

    G. Gnoli

    Old Iranian female deity of rectitude and justice.

  • ĀŠTĀD YAŠT

    P. O. Skjærvø

    Yt. 18, though dedicated to Aštād, the goddess of rectitude, does not mention her.

  • ĀSTĀN-E QODS-E RAŻAWĪ

    ʿA.-Ḥ. Mawlawī, M. T.Moṣṭafawī, and E. Šakūrzāda

    the complex of buildings surrounding the tomb of the Imam ʿAlī al-Reżā at Mašhad.

  • ĀSTĀNA

    Eckart Ehlers, Marcel Bazin, and Christian Bromberger

    a township and a district of Lāhīǰān in the province of Gīlān.

  • ĀSTĀRĀ

    M. Bazin

    The rural inhabitants grow rice, wheat, and vegetables on the coastal plain and wheat, corn (maize), and fruit trees on the lower slopes of the mountains, and graze flocks and herds between qešlāq and yeylāq. Many find it necessary to supplement their incomes with earnings from work as migrant laborers in the cities.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • ASTARĀBĀD

    C. E. Bosworth, S. Blair

    (or ESTERĀBĀD), the older Islamic name for the modern town of Gorgān in northeastern Iran, and also the name of an administrative province in Qajar times.

  • ASTARĀBĀD BAY

    E. Ehlers

    a lagoon in the extreme southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea.