Table of Contents

  • ASSYRIA

    M. Dandamayev, È. Grantovskiĭ, K. Schippmann

    i. The Kingdom of Assyria and its relations with Iran. ii. Achaemenid Aθurā. iii. Parthian Assur.

  • ASSYRIA i. The Kingdom of Assyria and its Relations with Iran

    M. Dandamayev and È. Grantovskiĭ

    Texts belonging to the 9th-7th centuries B.C. provide valuable data on the expeditions of Assyrian kings to Iranian territory, including “Messages to the Deity” and summaries of royal victories presented in geographical order.

  • ASSYRIA ii. Achaemenid Aθurā

    M. Dandamayev

    Old Persian Aθurā “Assyria” goes back to Akkadian Aššur, the name of the city of Aššur and of the original Assyrian territory on the middle course of the Tigris.

  • ASSYRIA iii. Parthian Assur

    K. Schippmann

    In 141 B.C. the Parthian king Mithridates I conquered large parts of Mesopotamia, including probably Assyria. Although the Parthians were soon driven back out of Mesopotamia, Assur finally fell under Parthian influence from the reign of Mithridates II onwards.

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  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN

    R. Macuch, A. Ishaya

    The development of the modern concept of “Assyrians” among the East Syrian Christian communities began with Botta’s excavation of the palace of Sargon II in Khorsabad (1843), followed by Layard’s discovery of Nineveh. This research opened the eyes, not only of the West, but also of the ethnically nameless Aramean population in these regions which had been satisfied to identify itself by religions denominations.

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  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN i. The Assyrian community (Āšūrīān) in Iran

    R. Macuch

    Clearly, this small ethnic group divided into different confessions needed special arguments for accepting a standard name “Assyrians” after this term had already been accepted, for practical reasons, by their neighbors in the Near East and in Russia, Europe, and America.

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  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN ii. Literature of the Assyrians in Iran

    R. Macuch

    Although there were four missionary printing-houses in Urmia before the end of World War I, the Iranian Assyrian writers and poets were producing much more than they were able to publish. Many of their literary products remained in manuscript or were published only posthumously.

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  • ASSYRIANS IN IRAN iii. Assyrian Settlements Outside of Iran

    A. Ishaya

    The dispersion of the Assyrians took place during World War I, when the whole nation was uprooted from its homegrounds. The diaspora is still in progress. Presently in the Middle East, besides Iran, Assyrian settlements are located in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey.

  • ASTABED

    M. L. Chaumont

    The word astabid occurs in two Syriac texts as the title of a high-ranking Iranian officer and is applied to three different individuals.

  • AŠTĀD

    G. Gnoli

    Old Iranian female deity of rectitude and justice.