Table of Contents

  • ANĪS AL-ṬĀLEBĪN WA ʿODDAT AL-SĀLEKĪN

    H. Algar

    one of the most important sources extant for the life and dicta of Bahāʾ-al-dīn Naqšband, eponymous founder of the Naqšbandī Sufi order.

  • ANĪS-AL-DAWLA

    G. Nashat

    (d. 1314/1896-97), the most important wife of Nāṣer-al-dīn Shah Qāǰār.

  • ANJEDĀN

    F. Daftary

    village located 37 km east of Arāk (former Solṭānābād) in Markazī province.

  • ANJOMAN (Newspaper)

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    a newspaper published in Tabrīz in February-March 1907 by the Anǰoman-e Mellī of Tabrīz, which had previously published Rūz-nāma-ye mellī and Jarīda-ye mellī.

  • ANJOMAN (Organization)

    M. Bayat, H. Algar, W. L. Hanaway, Jr.

    (“gathering, association, society”), general designation of many private and public associations.

  • ANJOMAN-E ĀṮĀR-E MELLĪ

    ʿĪ. Ṣadīq

    (AAM), The National Monuments Council of Iran, established in 1301 Š./1922 to promote interest in and to preserve Iran’s cultural heritage.  

  • ANJOMAN-E EṢFAHĀN

    L P. Elwell-Sutton

     a weekly paper founded in Isfahan on 21 Ḏu’l-qaʿda 1324/6 January 1906.

  • ANJOMAN-E ESMĀʿĪLI

    F. Daftary

    (Ismaʿili Society), a research institution founded on 16 February 1946 in Bombay, India, under the patronage of the third Aqa Khan.

  • ANJOMAN-E EYĀLĀTI-E TABRIZ

    Mansoureh Ettehadieh

    the provincial council (anjoman) of Tabriz organized during the early phase of the Constitutional Revolution, in 1324/1906.

  • ANJOMAN-E FALSAFA WA ʿOLŪM-E ENSĀNĪ

    EIr

    (Iranian Society for Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences), formed in 1949 as a regional branch of the International Council of Philosophy and Humanistic Sciences, a UNESCO affiliate.

  • ANJOMAN-E KALĪMĪĀN

    A. Netzer

    (JEWISH ASSOCIATION), name given to the Jewish Association of Tehran in the 1930s, and to the Jewish Association of Iran since 1974.

  • ANJOMAN-E KETĀB

    I. Afshar

    (the Book Society of Iran), founded in 1957 in Tehran by Ehsan Yarshater  in collaboration with Iraj Afshar (Īraǰ Afšār), ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Zarrīnkūb, and a number of concerned scholars, to foster interest in good publications.

  • ANJOMAN-E MAʿĀREF

    ʿA. Anwār

    (Society or Council of Education), a society founded in Šawwāl, 1315/February-March, 1898 under the patronage of the then prime minister Ḥāǰǰ Mīrzā ʿAlī Khan Amīn-al-dawla in order to promote the cause of Western-type education in Iran.

  • ANJOMAN-E OḴOWWAT

    ʿA. Anwār and EIr

    (or OḴŪWAT) “The Society of Brotherhood,” a non-political Sufi-type society officially founded on 15 Šabʿān 1317/21 December 1899 by Mīrzā ʿAlī Khan Ẓahīr-al-dawla to promote the ideals of equity and brotherhood in Iran.

  • ANJOMAN-E SAʿĀDAT

    H. Algar

    (The Association of Felicity), an organization of Iranians resident in Istanbul, devoted to furthering the cause of the Iranian constitution between 1908 and 1912.  

  • ANJOMAN-E TABLĪḠĀT-E ESLAMĪ

    H. Algar

    (The Society of Islamic Propagation), an Islamic cultural and educational society established in 1941 by ʿAṭāʾallāh Šehābpūr. 

  • ANJOMAN-E TĀRĪḴ-E AFḠĀNESTĀN

    R. Farhādī

    (Historical Society of Afghanistan), founded in 1942  to disseminate information about the history of Afghanistan by conducting research, promoting scholarship, and publishing scholarly works.

  • ANJOMAN-E VELĀYATI

    ʿAli Reżā Abtaḥi

    (Provincial Council) of Isfahan, set up subsequent to the establishment of the Parliament (majles) to secure the aims of the Constitutional Revolution.

  • ANJOMAN-E ZARTOŠTĪĀN

    M. Kasheff

    (Society of Zoroastrians), the designation of formally instituted Zoroastrian associations in Iran.

  • ANJOMANĀRĀ, FARHANG-E

    R. ʿAfīfī

    Persian-language dictionary compiled by Reżā-qolī Khan Hedāyat (1215-88/1800-71) known as Lala-bāšī.

  • ʿANKABŪTĪĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ARACHNIDS.

  • ANKLESARIA, BAHRAMGORE TAHMURAS

    K. M. JamaspAsa and M. Boyce

    (1873-1944), Parsi scholar, son of Tahmuras Dinshah Anklesaria, born and educated in Bombay.

  • ANKLESARIA, PESHOTAN KAVASHAH

    K. M JamaspAsa and M. Boyce

    (1928-69), Parsi priest and scholar born at Broach.  

  • ANKLESARIA, TAHMURAS DINSHAH

    K. M. Jamaspasa and M. Boyce

    (1842-1903), Parsi priest and scholar.

  • ʿANNAZIDS

    K. M. Aḥmad

    (BANŪ ʿANNĀZ), a Kurdish dynasty (r. ca. 380-510/990-1117).

  • ANŌŠAG-RUWĀN

    C. J. Brunner

    "of immortal soul", originally a respectful euphemism, becoming in the Islamic period an aristocratic proper name.

  • ANŌŠAZĀD

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    (in the Šāh-nāma, Nōšzād; the name means “son of the immortal”), a son of Ḵosrow I Anōšīravān and leader of a revolt in ca. 550 CE.

  • ANŌŠĪRAVĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ḴOSROW I.

  • ANQARAVĪ, ROSŪḴ-AL-DĪN

    H. Algar

    (also known as Rosūḵī Dede; d. 1041/1631), a shaikh in the Mawlawī order and author of the most important traditional commentary on theMaṯnawī of Jalāl-al-dīn Rūmī.

  • ANQUETIL-DUPERRON

    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    (1731-1805), French orientalist, born in Paris on 7 December 1731. In June, 1759, he was able to send news to Paris that he had completed (in three months) a translation of that Vendidad.

  • ANṢARĪ, ʿALĪ-QOLĪ KHAN

    M. Kasheff

    MOŠĀWER-AL-MAMĀLEK (1868-1940), a career diplomat under the late Qajars. 

  • ANṢĀRĪ, ḴᵛĀJA ʿABDALLĀH

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿABDALLĀH ANṢĀRĪ.

  • ANṢĀRĪ, MĪRZĀ SAʿĪD KHAN

    Cross-Reference

    MOʾTAMEN-AL-MOLK. See MOʾTAMEN-AL-MOLK.

  • ANṢĀRĪ, SHAIKH MORTAŻĀ

    S. Murata

    B. MOḤAMMAD AMĪN (1799-1864), 1799-1864), important author of works on feqh.

  • ANSHAN

    J. Hansman

    (or ANZAN), the name of an important Elamite region in western Fārs and of its chief city.

  • ANṬĀKĪYA

    Cross-Reference

    See ANTIOCH.

  • ANTHROPOLOGY

    B. Spooner

    (Persian mardomšenāsī), social and cultural, in Iran and Afghanistan.

  • ANTHROPOMORPHISM

    J. Duchesne-Guillemin

    in Iranian religions. Ahura Mazdā in the Gāthās was conceived of, although invisible and immortal, as of human form, with eyes, hands, and tongue; but he was of gigantic size. 

  • ANTI-ALBORZ

    B. Hourcade

    This arid highland of middling elevation is a no-man’s-land, markedly different in respect of both physical features and human occupation from the high valleys of the Alborz, the cultivable piedmont areas, and the Tehran region. It is a marginal zone with an ethnically heterogeneous population and an economy wholly dependent on Tehran.

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  • ANTIA, EDULJI KERSASPJI

    K. M. JamaspAsa and M. Boyce

    (1842-1913/1212-83 yazdegerdi), Parsi scholar, born of priestly stock in Navsari in Gujarat.

  • ANTIOCH (1)

    M. L. Chaumont

    town in northern Syria founded in 300 B.C. by Seleucus I Nicator. It was the capital of the Seleucids and became one of the main centers of caravan traffic.

  • ANTIOCH (2)

    J. Hansman

    city name given to a number of Seleucid foundations.

  • ANTIOCHUS

    D. Bing, J. Sievers

    name of thirteen kings of the Seleucid dynasty, several of whom were active in Iran.

  • ANTIOCHUS OF COMMAGENE

    G. Widengren

    (full title: Theos Dikaios Epiphanes Philoromaios Philhellen, Theos signifying his divinity), 1st-century BC Seleucid ruler.

  • ANTONY, MARK

    M. L. Chaumont

    Roman general (ca. 82-30 B.C.) who led a campaign in Armenia during the Parthian period.

  • ANŪŠA MOḤAMMAD

    G. L. Penrose

    B. ABU’L-ḠĀZĪ, ABU’L-MOẒAFFAR, Khan of Ḵīva 1663-87.

  • ANUŠAWAN

    J. R. Russell

    grandson of Ara, legendary king of Armenia, called sawsanuēr “devoted to the plane tree.”

  • ANŪŠERVĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    B. MANŪČEHR B. QĀBŪS, ruler of the Daylamī dynasty of the Ziyarids in Ṭabarestān and Gorgān during the early 11th century.

  • ANŪŠERVĀN KĀŠĀNĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    , ABŪ NAṢR ŠARAF-AL-DĪN, high official who served the Great Saljuq sultans and the ʿAbbasid caliph during the first half of the 6th/12th century.

  • ANŪŠTIGIN ḠARČAʾĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    Turkish slave commander of the Saljuqs; in the late 11th century, he bore the traditional title of Ḵᵛārazmšāh.