Table of Contents


    Nassereddin Parvin

    a newspaper and a magazine published in Isfahan and Tehran, respectively, by Ṣeddiqa Dawlatābādi (1883-1961), a pioneer advocate of women’s rights in Iran (18 July, 1919 to 1 January, 1921, a total of 57 issues).


    Philippe Gignoux

    a 9th-century Zoroastrian scholar and author. He was one of the four sons of Gušn-Jam (or Juwānjam, according to Boyce and Cereti).


    Touraj Daryaee

    a Persian noble in the 7th century CE who was instrumental in the crowning of Farroḵzād Ḵosrow as Sasanian king.


    Mehrnoush Soroush

    (d. Tehran, 1240/1824), military leader and governor of Kermān under Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah Qajar.

  • ZĀL

    A. Shapur Shahbazi and Simone Cristoforetti

    legendary prince of Sistān, father of Rostam, and a leading figure in Iranian traditional history. His story is given in the Šāh-nāma.


    Pallan Ichaporia

    Yašt 19, the last in sequence of the great pieces of the Yašt hymn collection of the Younger Avesta.


    John Perry

    a dynasty that ruled in Persia (excluding Khorasan) from Shiraz, from the time when Nāder Shah’s (r. 1736-47) successors, the Afsharids, failed to recover western Persia until the founding of the Qajar dynasty by Āḡā Moḥammad Khan Qajar (r. 1779-97).

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  • ZĀR

    Maria Sabaye Moghaddam

    harmful wind (bād) associated with spirit possession beliefs in southern coastal regions of Iran. People believe in the existence of winds that can be either vicious or peaceful, believer (Muslim) or non-believer (infidel).



    territory around Lake Hāmun and the Helmand river in modern Sistān. See DRANGIANA.



    the name generally known in the West for the prophet of ancient Iran, whose transformation of his inherited religion inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Iran up until the triumph of Islam. See ZOROASTER.


    Rüdiger Schmitt

    legendary Saka queen during the reign of the likewise legendary Median king Astibaras.

  • ZARIRI, ʿAbbās

    Jalil Doostkhah

    (b. Isfahan 1909; d. Isfahan 1971) noted story-teller (naqqāl). Zariri like most other eulogists of his era, was functionally illiterate. He memorized and recited whatever he heard from other storytellers and scroll-writers. However, he became literate towards the end of his life.


    Erik Naḵjavāni

    the stage name of Moluk Faršforuš Kāšāni (b. Kāšān, ca 1289 Š./1910; d. Tehran, 1378 Š./1999), Persian singer and actress. Moluk was born into a musically inclined family.


    Natalia Ananjeva

    (1859-1919), prominent zoologist and explorer of fauna in Iran. Between 1884 and 1904, he conducted field trips in the Caspian region, the plains of Bukhara, the Khiva (Ḵiva) oasis, and northern and eastern Persia. More than 130 species of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, arthropods, and mollusks were named after him.

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  • ZĀYANDARUD newspaper

    Nassereddin Parvin

    weekly newspaper published in Isfahan by ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Mo ʿin-al-Eslām Ḵᵛānsāri from 1 RabiʿI 1327 to 22 Ḏu’l-ḥejja 1333 (23 March 1909 to 31 October 1915).


    Enrico G. Raffaelli

    Middle Persian term meaning "birth chart, horoscope."



    a history written in 11th century by Gardizi. See GARDIZI


    Multiple Authors

    mountainous district and village northeast of Isfahan, best known for its dialect.  This article is divided into two sections: i. The district   ii. The dialect

  • ZEFRA i. The District

    Mohammad-Hasan Raja’i Zefra’i and Habib Borjian

    mountainous district and village northeast of Isfahan. Historical documents have little mention of Zefra.  Nevertheless the village is embellished with a fine congregational mosque from the Saljuq era with subsequent renovations; the mosque’s antique gate and pulpit are dated 790/1388 and 791/1389, respectively.

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  • ZEǏMAL’, Evegeniǐ Vladislavovich

    Alexander Nikitin

    (1932-1998), Russian numismatist and historian of ancient Iran and Central Asia.