Table of Contents

  • TENTS ii. Variety, Construction, and Use

    Peter Alford Andrews

    Both of the basic tent types used by nomads elsewhere in the Middle East are present in Iran and Afghanistan: the black, goat-hair tent and the felt tent.

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  • TEPE HISSAR

    Robert H. Dyson

    Sixteen hundred graves were recorded; of these 782 from 1932 formed the basis of the 1937 tabular presentation of burial data. Generally, bodies were buried on their sides in a flexed position in simple pits. In period II, however, rare brick cist graves appear.

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  • TEPE YAHYA

    D. T. Potts

    (Tappe Yaḥyā), archeological site in the Soḡun valley, Kerman province, ca. 220 km south of Kerman and 130 km north of the Straits of Hormuz.

  • TERKEN ḴĀTUN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    title of the wife of the Khwarazmshah Tekiš b. Il-Arslān (r. 1172-1200) and mother of ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad (r. 1200-20).

  • TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN IRAN

    Willem Floor

    Textile production in Iran dates back to the 10th millennium BCE. The first European-style factories in Persia were established in the 1850s and were among the first establishments in the country to use modern technology.

  • THAILAND-IRAN RELATIONS

    M. Ismail Marcinkowski

    Iran’s cultural and trade relations with Southeast Asia date back far into the pre-Islamic period. Official diplomatic relations between the two regions become traceable only during the Safavid period (1501-1722).

  • TIGER

    Cross-Reference

    See BABR.

  • TIGRAN II

    N. Garsoian

    THE GREAT, king of Armenia (r. 95-55 BCE),  the most distinguished member of the so-called Artašēsid/Artaxiad dynasty.

  • TIGRIS RIVER

    Daniel T. Potts

    major river arising in the Taurus mountains of eastern Turkey, fed mainly by snow melt, which flows about 2,032 km through eastern Turkey and Iraq to the Persian Gulf.

  • TILLA BULAK

    Kai Kaniuth

    The site’s stratigraphy is marked by two main building horizons, of which the earlier one was destroyed in a conflagration that apparently engulfed the entire hamlet. From rooms of this phase, complete household inventories have been recovered which will be of enormous help in understanding the rural economic system.

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  • TIŠTRYA

    Antonio Panaino

    (Pahl. Tištar, NPers. Teštar), an important Old Iranian astral divine being (yazata-), to whom the eighth hymn (Tištar Yašt) of the Later Avestan corpus was dedicated (Panaino, 1990).

  • TOBACCO

    Willem Floor

    Modes of use, cultivation, and cultural connotations of Tobacco in Iran. Persian sources imply that the use of tobacco was already known in Persia before its introduction into Europe in the 1550s.

  • TOḤFAT AL-AḤBĀB

    Solomon Bayevsky

    (Gift for friends), a Persian dictionary of the early Safavid period, compiled by Ḥāfeẓ Solṭān-ʿAli Owbahi Heravi in 936/1529-30.

  • TOḤFAT AL-SAʿĀDA

    Solomon Bayevsky

    An early 16th-century Persian dictionary of 14,000 entries by Maḥmud b. Shaikh Żiāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad, a poet of northern India.

  • TONB

    Guive Mirfendereski

    (GREATER and LESSER), two tiny islands of arguable strategic importance in the eastern Persian Gulf, south of the western tip of Qešm island.

  • TOPKAPI PALACE

    Zeren Tanındı

    and its Persian holdings. The Topkapı Palace, which was known as the Yeni Saray (New Palace) until the 19th century, served the Ottoman sultans for almost 380 years as the imperial residence and center of command.

  • TRAJAN

    Erich Kettenhofen

    Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Roman emperor (98-117 CE), born probably in 53 CE, and died in early August 117. During his reign, the Imperium Romanum stretched to its widest extent, but only for a short period.

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  • TREE

    Cross-Reference

    See DERAḴT.

  • ṬUBĀ VA MAʿNĀ-YE ŠAB

    Houra Yavari

    novel (1987) by Shahrnush Parsipur, fiction writer and essayist, generally regarded as one the first instances of magical realism in modern Iran. The novel’s creative use of magical realism is colored by a distinctly mystical tone and has borrowed much of its flavor from Iran’s Illuminationist Philosophy.

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  • TUMANSKIǏ, Aleksandr Grigor’evich

    Jahangir Dorri

    (1861-1920), Russian orientalist, major-general of the Russian Imperial Army. He belonged to an ancient aristocratic family which had originated from the Great Duchy of Lithuania.

  • TUP

    F. Farrokh

    (tr. by Fariydoun Farrokh as The Cannon, Washington D. C., 2009), the first full-length novel by Gholam-Hosayn Sa’edi.

  • ṬURĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    (ṬOVARĀN), the mediaeval Islamic name for the mountainous district of east-central Baluchistan lying to the north of the mediaeval coastal region of Makrān, what was in recent centuries, until 1947, the Aḥmadzay Khanate of Kalat.

  • TURFAN EXPEDITIONS

    Werner Sundermann

    Turfan (also Uigur Turpan, Chin. Tulufan) in Xinjiang (Chinese Turkestan) is the largest oasis (ca. 170 square kilometers) on the ancient northern Silk Road.

  • TURKEY

    Cross-Reference

    See BŪQALAMŪN.

  • TURKIC LANGUAGES OF PERSIA: AN OVERVIEW

    Michael Knüppel

    Only in few other regions (Caucasus and Southern Siberia) one can find a nearly comparable diversity of Turkic languages as in Persia. The number of their speakers varies from several thousands to several millions.

  • TURKIC LOANWORDS IN PERSIAN

    Michael Knüppel

    Turkic-Iranian language contacts, as well as reciprocal loaning/borrowing of words, go back to the era of the Old Turkic language. 

  • TURKIC-IRANIAN CONTACTS i. LINGUISTIC CONTACTS

    John R. Perry

    Speakers of Iranian and Turkic languages have been in contact since pre-Islamic times, notably along the Inner Asian commercial corridors known collectively as the Silk Road.

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  • TURKIC-IRANIAN CONTACTS ii. CHAGHATAY

    Andras J. E. Bodrogligeti

    Chaghatay has been strongly influenced by Islamic prestige languages, especially Persian and Arabic, in all segments: phonetics, morphology, syntax, vocabulary, and cultural content. In the hands of the educated elite it became a tool wielded impressively to create exquisite literary works that won the admiration of contemporary Iranian and Arab men of letters.

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  • TURKMENS OF PERSIA ii. LANGUAGE

    Michael Knüppel

    Geographical location and the “tribal affiliation” of the speakers form the background of the dialectal variety. The dialects of Turkmen are spoken in their respective areas, where the members of the corresponding “tribes” live. For example, the Sarık dialect is spoken in Turkmenistan, as well as in Persia and Afghanistan.

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  • TURKO-SOGDIAN COINAGE

    Larissa Baratova

    issues of the khaqans (ḵāqāns) of the Western Turkic khanate in Central Asia between the 6th and 8th centuries CE, so called because the Turkic rulers issued them with Sogdian inscriptions.

  • ṬUSI, NAṢIR-AL-DIN ii. AS MATHEMATICIAN AND ASTRONOMER

    George Saliba

    Naṣir-al-Din Abu Jaʿfar Moḥammad Ṭusi (1201-1274) wrote works on subjects ranging from arithmetic to geometry, and to mathematical geography and spherical trigonometry, to astronomy proper as well as to astrological science and optics and trigonometry.

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  • T~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the T entries