Table of Contents

  • STEIN, (Marc) Aurel

    Susan Whitfield

    , Sir, Hungarian–British archeologist and explorer (b. Pest, Hungary, 26 November 1862; d. Kabul, 28 October 1943).

  • STERN, SAMUEL MIKLOS

    Farhad Daftary

    (1920-1969), a Hungarian-British orientalist and a leading scholar of modern Ismaʿili studies.

  • STOREY, Charles Ambrose

    Yuri Bregel

    British orientalist, author of the bio-bibliographical survey of Persian literature (1888-1968).

  • STROPHIC POETRY

    Cross-Reference

    See STANZAIC POETRY.

  • STUCCO DECORATION

    Jens Kröger

    IN IRANIAN ARCHITECTURE. This entry focuses on the Parthian and Sasanian periods and hints at the continuity in the Islamic period.

  • STŪM

    Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy

    Essentially a soliloquy of remembrance, the stūm ritual links living Zoroastrians to deceased coreligionists by reminding them that righteousness during life ensures salvation after death.

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  • SŪDGAR NASK and WARŠTMĀNSR NASK

    Yuhan Sohrab-Dinshaw Vevaina

    the first and second of three commentaries on the Old Avesta, extant in a Pahlavi resume in book nine of the Dēnkard, the third being the Bag nask.

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  • SUGAR

    Willem Floor

    Cultivation, manufacturing, and processing in Iran. Sugar was already known in Sasanian Persia around 460 CE.

  • SULEDEH

    Habib Borjian

    Caspian township and former sub-province in Māzandarān province, located half a mile off the Caspian shore on the river Suledeh, which rose in the hills of Lābij/Lāvij. Suledeh was on the western border of the coastal part of Nur district.

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  • ŠUR

    Jean During

    a modal system (dastgāh) in the traditional music in Iran.

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  • SUSA

    Multiple Authors

    a collection of articles about a major ancient city in Iran and one of the capital cities of the Achaemenids.

  • SUSA i. EXCAVATIONS

    Hermann Gasche

    In 1836, Major Rawlinson visited the site briefly and discovered fragments of columns, as well as an inscription by a “king of Susra.” Layard stayed in Khuzestan between 1840 and 1842. He, too, was interested in the famous “black stone” of the Tomb of Daniel, which had already disappeared before Rawlinson’s visit.

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  • SUSA ii. HISTORY DURING THE ELAMITE PERIOD

    François Vallat

    This span of almost two thousand years has been divided into three clearly defined phases called paleo-, meso-, and neo-Elamite, each of which presents peculiarities of its own.

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  • SUSA iii. THE ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Remy Boucharlat

    The history of Persia before Cyrus and at the beginning of his reign indicate that Persian elements were present in the plain not far from Susa in the first decades of the 6th century.

  • SUSA iv. The Hellenistic and Parthian Periods

    Laurianne Martinez-Sève

    The town retained its importance under Alexander’s officers and successors, the Diadochs. It continued to house an extensive treasury and was a major prize in the wars they engaged in.

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  • SUSA v. THE SASANIAN PERIOD

    G. Gropp

    The satrap of Susa (Šuš) had been loyal to the Parthian king Artabanus V, and the city was forcibly conquered by Ardašir (qq.v.) in 224 after his victory over King Šād-Šāpur of Isfahan.

  • SUVASHUN

    Masʿud Jaʿfari Jazi

    The story is narrated through the eyes of Zari, a happily married woman whose behavior, as she struggles to protect her family, runs counter to that of the traditionally marginalized Persian woman. Other details are recounted through accounts of social visits and other encounters between Zari and her friends and relatives.

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  • SUYĀB

    Gregory Semenov

    now called Ak-Beshim, the site of an important city on the Silk Road, located 60 km to the east of the city of Bishkek in Kyrgyzstan.

  • SWEDEN

    Multiple Authors

    i. Persian Art Collections, ii. Swedish Officers in Persia, 1911-15, iii. Swedish Archeological Mission to Iran, iv. Iranian Community

  • SWEDEN i. PERSIAN ART COLLECTIONS

    Karin Еdahl

    Persian art collections in Sweden contain items from the prehistoric period (3600 BCE) to the 19th century. The first artifacts of possibly Iranian origin were brought by Vikings (or Rus), who traveled to the shores of the Caspian and there met with merchants from Iran. Notably a 9th-century glass beaker and two bronze jugs, finds from Viking burial sites, bear witness to these contacts.

  • SWEDEN ii. SWEDISH OFFICERS IN PERSIA, 1911-15

    Mohammad Fazlhashemi

    In October 1910, increasing unrest in southern Persia led the British government to demand that the Persian central government restore order. The Persian government decided to create a highway gendarmerie with the aid of European instructors.

  • SWEDEN iii. SWEDISH ARCHEOLOGICAL MISSIONS TO IRAN

    Carl Nylander

    This article provides an overview of Swedish archeological missions to Iran from the beginning of contact between Swedish and Persian culture in the 17th century to present times.

  • SWEDEN iv. Iranian Community

    Hassan Hosseini-Kaladjahi and Melissa Kelly

    1984 was a turning point for the influx of Iranians to Sweden. In that year 1,074 Iranians immigrated to Sweden. From this date the rate of Iranians moving to Sweden increased exponentially, reaching its peak in 1988 with 6,203 immigrants. The number of Iranian citizens in Sweden grew from 7,317 to 32,171.

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  • SYKES, Ella Constance

    Denis Wright

    (1863-1939), traveler and writer about Iran, sister of Percy M. Sykes.

  • SYKES, Percy Molesworth

    Denis Wright

    , Sir (1867-1945), soldier, diplomat, traveler, and writer who wrote extensively on Iran. 

  • SYNGUÉ SABUR: PIERRE DE PATIENCE

    FARANGUIS HABIBI

    Atiq Rahimi was educated at the Franco-Afghan lycée in Kabul, and received a doctorate in audio-visual sciences from the Sorbonne. He has lived in Paris as a political refugee since 1985. Ḵāk o ḵākestar, his first novel in Persian, was published in Paris in 1996.

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  • SYRIAC LANGUAGE

    Multiple Authors

    the slightly archaizing Eastern Aramaic dialect of the city of Edessa that is the most important Aramaic dialect used by Christians. Syriac served as an important contributor to the mainstream of medieval Islamic and Western European civilization.

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  • SYRIAC LANGUAGE i. IRANIAN LOANWORDS IN SYRIAC

    Claudia A. Ciancaglini

    Many of the authors of Syriac literature were Persians who wrote in Syriac, either because they were Christian converts, or because they wrote about subjects that had a literary tradition in Syriac, such as medicine. 

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  • SYRIAC LANGUAGE ii. SYRIAC WRITINGS ON PRE-ISLAMIC IRAN

    Phillipe Gignoux

    There are numerous chronicles in Syriac, but since they use the same information, they contribute little to knowledge of Iran. We must distinguish between the sources that derive from the western Syrians or Jacobites, and those which originate with the eastern Syrians or Nestorians.

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  • SYRIAC LANGUAGE iii. Syriac Translators as the Medium for Transmission of Greek Ideas to Sasanian Iran

    Philippe Gignoux

     The high point in the history of translation from Greek to Syriac came in the seventh century, during which translations in all domains were revised. 

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  • Sabā, Zard-e Malijeh

    music sample

  • Šāh-nāma

    music sample

  • Šahnāz

    music sample

  • Sanandaj – Dekr Qāderieh

    music sample

  • Segāh Yatim

    music sample

  • Šeyḵ Amiri Suite

    music sample

  • Šeyḵāni-Asuri

    music sample

  • Shaydā - az ğam-e ‘ešq-e to

    music sample

  • Simorğ

    music sample

  • Song in praise of opium

    music sample

  • Song of carpet-weaving

    music sample

  • S~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter S entries.