Table of Contents

  • SOUR CHERRY

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀLBĀLŪ.

  • SOUR GRAPE jUICE

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀB-ḠŪRA.

  • SOUTH PERSIA RIFLES

    Floreeda Safiri

    (SPR), a locally recruited militia, commanded by British officers, and operating in the provinces of Fārs and Kermān from 1916 to 1921.

  • SOUTHEAST ASIA i. PERSIAN PRESENCE IN

    M. Ismail Marcinkowski

    Attention will be given to some of the most striking features of the Persian influences on Southeast Asian Islamic culture.

  • SOUTHEAST ASIA ii. SHIʿITES IN

    M. Ismail Marchinkowski

    Along with Sufism, Shiʿite elements too entered Malay-Indonesian Islam, certainly by way of southern India, where it was well represented.

  • SPĀHBED

    Rika Gyselen

     Sasanian title that denoted a high military rank and meant  ‘chief of an army, general.’

  • SPEAR

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    (Av. aršti- ‘spear,’ OPers. aršti ‘throwing weapon’ or ‘javelin’) is mentioned in the Avesta several times.

  • SPIEGEL, FRIEDRICH (VON)

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (1820 -1905), German orientalist and scholar of Iranian studies.

  • SPULER, Bertold

    Werner Ende, Bert Fragner, Dagmar Riedel

    As a teenager Spuler lived through the economic and political turmoils of the 1920s following German defeat in World War I. He received a humanist education, with a focus on Latin and Greek, at the Bismarck Gymnasium in Karlsruhe. Spuler easily picked up languages, learning Russian, Polish, Hebrew, French, English, Italian, and Spanish.

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  • SRAOŠA

    William W. Malandra

    a major deity (yazata) in Zoroastrianism, whose great popularity reserved a place for him in Iranian Islam as the angel Surōš. In Avestan, the word occurs both as a noun and as a name. Its basic common meaning is “to hear and obey.”

  • STAMPS

    Cross-Reference

    see PHILATELY

  • STANZAIC POETRY

    Gabrielle van den Berg

    Stanzaic verse forms have been part of the corpus of classical Persian poetry from the early stage onwards and have continued to play a role until modern times.  Though the quantity of stanzaic poetry in Persian literature is modest in comparison to other verse forms, a few examples of this genre have obtained widespread fame and an iconic value in Persian culture and society.

  • STARK, FREYA Madeline

    Malise Ruthven

    British travel-writer.  Her 1934 book The Valley of the Assassins and Other Persian Travels belongs to the canon of English travel literature.

  • STEEL INDUSTRY IN IRAN

    Willem Floor

     In 1927, plans were drawn up to establish smelting works in the north of the country to produce rail tracks domestically.

  • STEIN, (Marc) Aurel

    Susan Whitfield

    , Sir, Hungarian–British archeologist and explorer (b. Pest, Hungary, 26 November 1862; d. Kabul, 28 October 1943).

  • STOREY, Charles Ambrose

    Yuri Bregel

    British orientalist, author of the bio-bibliographical survey of Persian literature (1888-1968).

  • STUCCO DECORATION

    Jens Kröger

    IN IRANIAN ARCHITECTURE. This entry focuses on the Parthian and Sasanian periods and hints at the continuity in the Islamic period.

  • STŪM

    Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy

    Essentially a soliloquy of remembrance, the stūm ritual links living Zoroastrians to deceased coreligionists by reminding them that righteousness during life ensures salvation after death.

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  • SŪDGAR NASK and WARŠTMĀNSR NASK

    Yuhan Sohrab-Dinshaw Vevaina

    the first and second of three commentaries on the Old Avesta, extant in a Pahlavi resume in book nine of the Dēnkard, the third being the Bag nask.

  • SUGAR

    Willem Floor

    Cultivation, manufacturing, and processing in Iran. Sugar was already known in Sasanian Persia around 460 CE.

  • SUSA i. EXCAVATIONS

    Hermann Gasche

    In 1836, Major Rawlinson visited the site briefly and discovered fragments of columns, as well as an inscription by a “king of Susra.” Layard stayed in Khuzestan between 1840 and 1842. He, too, was interested in the famous “black stone” of the Tomb of Daniel, which had already disappeared before Rawlinson’s visit.

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  • SUSA ii. HISTORY DURING THE ELAMITE PERIOD

    François Vallat

    This span of almost two thousand years has been divided into three clearly defined phases called paleo-, meso-, and neo-Elamite, each of which presents peculiarities of its own.

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  • SUSA iii. THE ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Remy Boucharlat

    The history of Persia before Cyrus and at the beginning of his reign indicate that Persian elements were present in the plain not far from Susa in the first decades of the 6th century.

  • SUSA iv. THE SASANIAN PERIOD

    G. Gropp

    The satrap of Susa (Šuš) had been loyal to the Parthian king Artabanus V, and the city was forcibly conquered by Ardašir (qq.v.) in 224 after his victory over King Šād-Šāpur of Isfahan.

  • SUVASHUN

    Masʿud Jaʿfari Jazi

    The story is narrated through the eyes of Zari, a happily married woman whose behavior, as she struggles to protect her family, runs counter to that of the traditionally marginalized Persian woman. Other details are recounted through accounts of social visits and other encounters between Zari and her friends and relatives.

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  • SUYĀB

    Gregory Semenov

    now called Ak-Beshim, the site of an important city on the Silk Road, located 60 km to the east of the city of Bishkek in Kyrgyzstan.

  • SWEDEN

    Multiple Authors

    i. Persian Art Collections, ii. Swedish Officers in Persia, 1911-15, iii. Swedish Archeological Mission to Iran, iv. Iranian Community

  • SWEDEN i. PERSIAN ART COLLECTIONS

    Karin Еdahl

    Persian art collections in Sweden contain items from the prehistoric period (3600 BCE) to the 19th century. The first artifacts of possibly Iranian origin were brought by Vikings (or Rus), who traveled to the shores of the Caspian and there met with merchants from Iran. Notably a 9th-century glass beaker and two bronze jugs, finds from Viking burial sites, bear witness to these contacts.

  • SWEDEN ii. SWEDISH OFFICERS IN PERSIA, 1911-15

    Mohammad Fazlhashemi

    In October 1910, increasing unrest in southern Persia led the British government to demand that the Persian central government restore order. The Persian government decided to create a highway gendarmerie with the aid of European instructors.

  • SWEDEN iii. SWEDISH ARCHEOLOGICAL MISSIONS TO IRAN

    Carl Nylander

    This article provides an overview of Swedish archeological missions to Iran from the beginning of contact between Swedish and Persian culture in the 17th century to present times.

  • SWEDEN iv. Iranian Community

    Hassan Hosseini-Kaladjahi and Melissa Kelly

    1984 was a turning point for the influx of Iranians to Sweden. In that year 1,074 Iranians immigrated to Sweden. From this date the rate of Iranians moving to Sweden increased exponentially, reaching its peak in 1988 with 6,203 immigrants. The number of Iranian citizens in Sweden grew from 7,317 to 32,171.

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  • SYKES, Ella Constance

    Denis Wright

    (1863-1939), traveler and writer about Iran, sister of Percy M. Sykes.

  • SYKES, Percy Molesworth

    Denis Wright

    , Sir (1867-1945), soldier, diplomat, traveler, and writer who wrote extensively on Iran. 

  • SYNGUÉ SABUR: PIERRE DE PATIENCE

    FARANGUIS HABIBI

    Atiq Rahimi was educated at the Franco-Afghan lycée in Kabul, and received a doctorate in audio-visual sciences from the Sorbonne. He has lived in Paris as a political refugee since 1985. Ḵāk o ḵākestar, his first novel in Persian, was published in Paris in 1996.

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  • SYRIAC LANGUAGE i. IRANIAN LOANWORDS IN SYRIAC

    Claudia A. Ciancaglini

    Syriac, originally the eastern Aramaic dialect of the city of Edessa, became the most important language spoken and written by Christian communities during the Sasanian era from Egypt and Asia Minor to Syria, Iran, and Mesopotamia.

  • SYRIAC LANGUAGE ii. SYRIAC WRITINGS ON PRE-ISLAMIC IRAN

    Phillipe Gignoux

    The Syriac works which provide information about pre-Islamic Iran can be divided into several groups, excluding literary works as such.

  • S~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter S entries.