Table of Contents

  • SHIʿITES IN ARABIA

    Werner Ende

    survey of the Arabian peninsula including Persian Gulf regions.

  • SHIʿITES IN LEBANON

    Sabrina Mervin

    Shiʿites, that is, Muslims adhering to the Twelver (eṯnāʿašari) or Imamite persuasion of Shiʿism, form the single largest denominational community of Lebanon. Their number is estimated at 1.5 million.

  • SHIR-E SHIAN

    Christopher P. Thornton

    Given the lack of architectural remains and the shallowness of the deposit, Schmidt argued that Shir-e Shian was a temporary campsite occupied for only one period. It is also plausible, given that burials were often placed below the floors of houses in prehistory, that the mounds of Shir-e Shian had simply been heavily eroded over time.

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  • SHIRAZ ARTS FESTIVAL

    Hormoz Farhat

    For eleven consecutive years, beginning in 1967, a festival of arts, known in Persian as Jašn-e honar, took place in Shiraz and the nearby remains of the ancient imperial city of Persepolis. Its purpose was to be a meeting place of the performing arts of the Eastern world with those of the West.

  • SHIRAZ i. HISTORY TO 1940

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    The city of Shiraz has been the capital of the province of Fārs since the Islamic conquest, succeeding Eṣṭaḵr of the Sasanian period and Persepolis of the Achaemenid days.

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  • SHIRVANLU, FIRUZ

    EIr

    (1938-1989), art critic, scholar, and artist, who played an instrumental role in the creation and management of several museums and cultural centers in the 1960s and 1970s.

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  • SHOGHI EFFENDI

    Moojan Momen

    Šawqi Rabbāni (1897-1957), eldest grandson and successor of ʿAbd-al-Bahāʾ as leader of the Bahai Faith (1921-57). Iranian Bahais usually refer to him as Ḥażrat-e Waliy-e Amrallāh, the title given to him by ʿAbd-al-Bahāʾ, usually translated as “the Guardian of the Cause of God, or simply “the Guardian.”

  • SIĀH-QALAM

    Bernard O'Kane

    “black pen” (1) the genre of paintings or drawings done in pen and ink; (2) the painters of such drawings.

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  • SIĀHKAL

    Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger

    small town and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in the southeastern part of Gilān province.

  • SIALK, TEPE

    Cross-Reference

    See  CERAMICS i. The Neolithic Period through the Bronze Age in Northeastern and North-central Persia.

  • SIAR AL-MOLUK

    Neguin Yavari

    also known as Siāsat-nāma (The book of statecraft) and Panjāh faṣl (Fifty chapters), a manual on statecraft written for the Saljuq sultan Malekšāh by his vizier Neẓām-al-Molk.

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  • SIĀVAŠ

    Cross-Reference

    See  KAYĀNIĀN vi. Siiāuuaršan, Siyāwaxš, Siāvaš.

  • SIBERIAN ELM

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀZĀD.

  • SĪH-RŌZAG

    Enrico G. Raffaelli

    a text of the Xorda Avesta comprising invocations to Zoroastrian divinities.

  • SILK

    Cross-Reference

    Originally from China, silk has been known in Iran since ancient times. See ABRĪŠAM.

  • SILVER

    Michael Spink

    Silver, the element Ag, was found in a number of areas of Islamic Greater Iran, and medieval authors described its exploitation. Although few silver vessels have survived, contemporary literature demonstrates its importance as a luxury material.

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  • SIMJURIDS

    Luke Treadwell

    a family of Turkish mamluks who over four generations, from the late 9th century to the Qarakhanid conquest (389/999), played a leading role in the Samanid state.

  • SIMORḠ

    Hanns-Peter Schmidt

    (Persian), Sēnmurw (Pahlavi), Sīna-Mrū (Pāzand), a fabulous, mythical bird. The name derives from Avestan mərəγō saēnō ‘the bird Saēna’, originally a raptor, either eagle or falcon, as can be deduced from the etymologically identical Sanskrit śyená.

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  • SINDHI

    Christopher Shackle

    A language of the Indo-Aryan family. Many of its numerous distinctive features may be attributed to the isolated position in the lower Indus valley of Sindh.

  • SINEMĀ WA NEMĀYEŠĀT

    Nassereddin Parvin

    the first Persian magazine entirely devoted to cinematography (1930).

  • SIRĀFI, ABU SAʿID ḤASAN

    David Pingree

    10th-century polymath known best for his work as a grammarian.

  • ŠIRĀZI, Nur-al-Din Moḥammad ʿAbd-Allāh

    Fabrizio Speziale

    Indo-Muslim physician and one of the main Persian authors of works on medical subjects in India in the 17th century.

  • SISIGAMBIS

    Ernst Badian

    the mother of Darius III and of Stateira (2), perhaps also of Oxyathres; captured in the Persian base camp after the battle of Issus along with other members of the immediate royal family.

  • SISTĀN ii. In the Islamic period

    C. E. Bosworth

    It was during the governorship in Khorasan of ʿAbdallāh b. ʿĀmer for the caliph ʿOṯmān that the Arabs first appeared in Sistān, when in 31/652 Zarang surrendered peacefully, although Bost resisted fiercely.

  • SISTĀNI, MIRZĀ ŠĀH-ḤOSAYN

    Kioumars Ghereghlou

    (1571-after 1627), Persian historian, poet, and bureaucrat whose works include a local history of Sistān, a biographical dictionary of poets, and two maṯnawis.

  • ŠKAND GUMĀNĪG WIZĀR

    Carlo G. Cereti

    a Middle Persian Zoroastrian text written by Mardānfarrox son of Ohrmazddād in the ninth century.

  • SLAVES and SLAVERY

    Cross-Reference

    See BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI.

  • SMBAT BAGRATUNI

    N. Garsoian

    distinguished Armenian prince and head of the Bagratid house at the turn of the 6th to the 7th century.

  • SMOKING IN IRAN

    Esfandyar Batmanghelidj

    Iran began producing finished cigarettes in order to meet growing domestic demand.  Russian investors established a series of manufacturing facilities in Rasht by 1890.  According to the accounts of the British consul in Gilan, the these produced cigarettes “too hot and coarse for European tastes,” but “well made and cheap enough.”

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  • SOAP

    Willem Floor

    (Ar. and Pers. ṣābun) was manufactured in Persia from antiquity. In the 10th century, various Persian towns produced soap, among them Bost, Balkh, and Arrajān.

  • ṢOBḤI, FAŻL-ALLĀH MOHTADI

    Moojan Momen

    (1897-1962), Persian school teacher, who is best known as a children’s storyteller, collector of folktales, broadcaster, and Bahai apostate.

  • SOCIETAS IRANOLOGICA EUROPAEA

    Gherardo Gnoli

    (SIE), important international association in the field of Iranian studies.

  • SODIQI MUNŠI, Mirzo

    Keith Hitchins

    Tajik poet (d. 1819). Little is known of his life and career.

  • SOFRA

    Mahmoud Omidslalar

    a piece of cloth that is spread on the floor, and on which dishes of food are placed at meal times.

  • SOGDIAN LANGUAGE

    Multiple Authors

    one of the Eastern Middle Iranian languages once spoken in Sogdiana.

  • SOGDIAN LANGUAGE i. Description

    Yutaka Yoshida

    Sogdian is one of the Eastern Middle Iranian languages once spoken in Sogdiana (northern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) before the Islamization of the area in the 10th century. It was written in three scripts: Sogdian, Manichean, and Syriac.

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  • SOGDIAN LANGUAGE ii. Loanwords in Persian

    B. Gharib

    Loanwords from Sogdian into Persian were adopted through the cultural relations and commercial interactions which existed between Iran proper and Transoxiana, the birth place of Sogdian language.

  • SOGDIAN LITERATURE i. Buddhist

    Yutaka Yoshida

    A considerable number of Buddhist Sogdian texts dating from around the 8th century CE were unearthed from “Caves of the Thousand Buddhas” at Dunhuang in western China and from Turfan in Chinese Turkestan.

  • SOGDIAN TRADE

    Etienne de la Vaissiere

    The people of Sogdiana were the main caravan merchants of Central Asia from the 5th to the 8th century.

  • SOGDIANA

    Multiple Authors

    the name in Classical sources for Suγd, the region of Central Asia north of the river Oxus/Amu Darya.

  • SOGDIANA i. The Name

    Pavel Lurje

    etymology of the name of the ancient and medieval land around Samarqand.

  • SOGDIANA ii. Historical Geography

    Pavel Lurje

    accounts of the cities and regions of Sogdiana.

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  • SOGDIANA iii. HISTORY AND ARCHEOLOGY

    É. de La Vaissière

    an Iranian-speaking region in Central Asia that stretches from the rivers Āmu Daryā in the south to the Syr Daryā in the north, with its heart in the valleys of the Zarafšān and the Kaška Daryā.

  • SOGDIANA iv. SOGDIAN ART

    Markus Mode

    The development and apogee of Sogdian art was limited to four or five centuries before and during the Muslim conquest of Transoxania. Sogdian art of the heartlands flourished in the settled areas of the Zeravshan and Kashkadarya valleys, as well as in Ustrushana (Osrušana), north of the Turkestan mountain range.

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  • ŠOKUROV, MOḤAMMADJĀN

    Habib Borjian and Evelin Grassi

    (1925-2012), Tajik scholar and literary critic. From the late 1980s, in the milieu of glasnost, he cultivated an interest in the theory of modern Tajik culture, and he published copiously on the issues of the history and contemporary conditions of Tajik language, literature, and culture during the independence period after 1991.

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  • SOLAYMĀN

    Peter Jackson

    Il-Khan of Iran (1339-1344), a great-grandson of Hülegü’s third son Yošmut.

  • SOLAYMĀN I

    Rudi Matthee

    (1648-1694), Shah, the eighth king of the Safavid dynasty and the oldest son of Shah ʿAbbās II. Until his enthronement, he grew up secluded in the royal harem and his first language was Turkish.

  • SOLAYMĀNI, Ātajān Peyrow

    Keith Hitchins

    (1899-1933), Tajik poet who blended the classical traditions of Tajik-Persian verse with the social themes of the new Soviet Central Asia of the 1920s and early 1930s.

  • SOLṬĀN ḤOSAYN

    Rudi Matthee

    (1668-1727), the ninth and last Safavid king, the eldest son of Shah Solaymān I. Like most Safavid rulers, he was most comfortable speaking Turkish, although he appears to have learned Persian as well.

  • SOLṬĀN WALAD

    Cross-Reference

    13th-14th-century Sufi shaikh and poet, son and eventual successor of Mawlānā Jalāl-al-Din Rumi(Mawlawi). See BAHĀʾ-AL-DĪN SOLṬĀN WALAD.