Table of Contents

  • SAMĀʿI, Ḥabib

    Morteżā Ḥoseyni Dehkordi and EIr

    (1905-1946), an outstanding player of the santur (a kind of dulcimer).

  • SAMAK-E ʿAYYĀR

    Marina Gaillard

    a prose narrative originating in the milieu of professional storytellers, transmitted orally and written down around the 12th century.

  • SAMARQAND i. HISTORY AND ARCHEOLOGY

    Frantz Grenet

    Since the publication of the entry Afrāsiāb in 1984 new information has been brought to light on this archeological site and, consequently, on the history of pre-Mongol Samarqand.

  • SAMFONI-e MORDAGĀN

    Houra Yavari

    first novel (1989) by Abbas Maroufi, fiction writer and the founder and editor of the periodical Gardun

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  • SANĀʾI

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (d. ca. 1130), Persian poet of the later Ghaznavid era, celebrated particularly for his homiletic poetry and his great influence on the development of mystical literature in general.

  • SANAI, MAHMOUD

    Ali Gheissari

    professor of psychology, psychoanalyst, educator, writer, translator, and government official.

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  • SAN‘ATIZADEH KERMANI, Homayun

    Cyrus Alinejad

    (1925-2009), entrepreneur, man of letters, publisher, and founding manager of Moʾassasa-ye entešārāt-e Ferānklin, who played an instrumental role in the introduction of modern publishing industries in Iran.

  • SANCISI-WEERDENBURG, HELEEN

    Amélie Kuhrt

    (1944-2000), Dutch ancient historian, specializing in classical Greek and Achaemenid history.

  • SAND GROUSE

    Eskandar Firouz

    a family (Pteroclididae) of game birds of which seven species are found in Persia, characteristic of Persia’s vast deserts and steppes. They have no affinity with true grouse and are included in the same order as pigeons (Columbiformes).

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  • ŠĀNDARMAN

    Cross-Reference

    one of the five traditional Ṭāleš khanates (Ḵamsa-ye Ṭavāleš) in western Gilān, between Ṭāleš Dulāb and Māsāl.

  • SANG-E CHAKHMAQ

    Christopher P. Thornton

    The Aceramic Neolithic phase spans Levels 2-5 of the Western Tepe. This period is notable for large mud-brick houses with plastered and red-painted floors and well-built fireplaces, some of which appear to have had ritual significance. Amongst these houses there is abundant evidence for lithic tools using both local flint/chert and imported obsidian.

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  • SANG-E ṢABUR

    Ali Ferdowsi

    (1966, tr. by Mohammad Reza Ghanoonparvar, as The Patient Stone, 1989), the last, and arguably, the most critically acclaimed work of fiction by Sadeq Chubak.

  • SANGLĀḴ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALI

    Maryam Ekhtiar

    (b. Qučān, Khorasan, date unknown; d. Tabriz, 3 March 1877), celebrated calligrapher and stone carver, as well as poet and author. He lived as a dervish and spent much of his time traveling, with long sojourns in the Ottoman empire and Egypt.

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  • SANJANA, Darab Dastur Peshotan

    Michael Stausberg

    (1857-1931), Zoroastrian head-priest and scholar.

  • SANJAR, Aḥmad b. Malekšāh

    Deborah G. Tor

    Abu’l-Ḥārith, Moʿezz-al-donyā-wa’l-din, Borhān Amir-al-Moʾmenin, first subordinate sultan of Khorasan and then Great Sultan of the Great Saljuq empire.

  • SAOŠYANT

    William Malandra

    a term in Zoroastrianism sometimes rendered as “savior.” Since the term also occurs frequently in reference to contemporary individuals, a more neutral translation such as “benefactor” or “helper” (Lommel) may be preferred. 

  • SĀQI-NĀMA

    Paul Losensky

    (Book of the Cupbearer), a poetic genre in which the speaker, seeking relief from his hardships, losses, and disappointments, repeatedly summons the sāqi or cupbearer to bring him wine.

  • SAQQĀ-ḴĀNA i. HISTORY

    Willem Floor

    Saqqā-ḵāna is a term referring to public water dispensers, which were, and in some places still are, a feature of some large institutional buildings in Iran, typically mosques, shrines, and bazaars.

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  • SAQQĀ-ḴĀNA ii. SCHOOL OF ART

    Hamid Keshmirshekan

    The term saqqā-ḵāna was first used to refer to a contemporary art movement in Iran in 1962. It was initially applied to painting and sculpture which used existing elements from votive Shiʿite art. It gradually came to be applied more widely to art works that used traditional-decorative elements.

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  • ŠARAFĀBĀD

    Robert M. Schacht and Henry T. Wright III

    Tepe Šarāfabād was excavated in 1971 by the joint project of the University of Michigan and what was then the Archeological Service of Iran. The staff of the excavation was directed by Henry T. Wright III, and the official representative of the National Research Center for Archeology was Muhammed H.Ḵošābi.

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  • ŠARḤ-e TAʿARROF

    Nasrollah Pourjavady

    an extensive commentary in Persian on Abu Bakr Moḥammad Kalābāḏi’s Sufi manual Ketāb al-Taʿarrof le-maḏhab ahl al-taṣawwuf.

  • ŠARIF KHAN, Moḥammad

    Fabrizio Speziale

    (d. ca. 1807), physician at the court of the Mughal emperor, Shah ʿĀlam II (r. 1760-1806), author, and the eponymous founder of the Šarifi family of physicians.

  • ŠARQ

    Nasserddin Parvin

    a literary journal published occasionally in Tehran between 1924 and 1932.

  • SASANIAN COINAGE

    Nikolaus Schindel

    The coinage of the Sasanian empire (ca. 224-651 CE) is not only the most important primary source for its monetary and economic history, but is also of greatest importance for history and art history.

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  • SASANIAN DYNASTY

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    The Sasanian dynasty represented the last Persian lineage of rulers to achieve hegemony over much of Western Asia before Islam, ruled 224 CE–650 CE.

  • SASANIAN ROCK RELIEFS

    G. Herrmann and V. S. Curtis

    one of the primary sources for documentation of the Sasanian period.

  • SASANIAN TEXTILES

    Matteo Compareti

    Classical, Islamic, and Chinese sources celebrate Sasanian textiles as a very precious commodity, but no specific descriptions of them are given. Most studies of Sasanian textile art are originally based on these sources and on examining the reliefs of the larger grotto at Tāq-e Bostān.

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  • SASANIAN WALL PAINTING

    An De Waele

    Murals found on sites within the territory of the Sasanian empire (224- 650 CE) are considered Sasanian. While their main function is decorative, their secondary function can be derived from location, theme, and dimension, and is important because it reflects a world-view.

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  • SATASPES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    an Achaemenid, the son of a certain Teaspis and from his mother’s side a nephew of King Darius I.

  • SATTĀR KHAN

    Anja Pistor-Hatam

    (1868-1914), defender of Tabriz during the Qajar “Lesser Autocracy” in 1908-09—an example of a mythical personage, and as a long-lasting focal point of collective memory and identity, whose symbolic function has an impact until this very day.

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  • ṢAWMAʿA SARĀ

    Marcel Bazin

    city and district in western Gilān.  The city is located at lat 37°17′ N, long 29°19′ E, in the Fumanāt plain, at a distance of 25 km to the west of Rašt, the center of the province.

  • ŠĀYEST NĒ ŠĀYEST

    Fereydun Vahman

    (Proper and Improper), a work in the Middle Persian/Pahlavi language dealing with Zoroastrian jurisprudence and containing miscellaneous laws concerning sins, purity, and impurity.

  • SAYYED AJALL

    George Lane

    governor of the Dali province in China during the Mongol period.

  • SCERIMAN FAMILY

    Sebouh Aslanian and Houri Berberian

    a wealthy Persian-Armenian merchant family.

  • SCHEFER, Charles-Henri-Auguste

    Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam

    In 1833 Schefer entered the prestigious Collège Louis-le-Grand, where one of his classmates was Charles Baudelaire (1821-67). Schefer enrolled in his school's Arabic, Turkish, and Persian courses for prospective translators (jeunes de langues). In 1838 he was admitted to the Ecole des langues orientales vivantes, and his instructor of Persian became Etienne Quatremère.

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  • SCHEIL, Jean-Vincent

    Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam

    , Father (1858-1940), French philologist and archeologist.

  • SCHLIMMER, JOHANNES LODEWIK

    Willem Floor

    (1818-1876), Dutch physician who served in Iran as an instructor of medicine and became a leading pioneer in the promotion of modern medicine in Iran. His Terminologie Medico-Pharmaceutique (1874) helped standardize medical technical terms in Persian, thus guiding future generations of medical students in Iran.

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  • SE QAṬRA ḴUN

    SOHILA SAREMI

    short story by Ṣādeq Hedāyat in a collection with the same title.

  • SEALS AND SEALINGS

    Pierfrancesco Callieri

    IN THE EASTERN IRANIAN LANDS  The bulk of the material known at present is of antiquarian origin and was gathered between the late nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries when European and Russian scholars and collectors turned their attention to these previously unexplored regions.

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  • SEBÜKTEGIN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a slave commander of the Samanids and the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty in eastern Afghanistan.

  • SEFIDRUD

    Cross-Reference

    See Safidrud.

  • SEMINO, Barthélémy

    Shireen Mahdavi

    French general, engineer, and linguist in the service of the Qajars in Persia.

  • SEPEHRI, Sohrab

    Houman Sarshar

    (1928-1980), notable Iranian poet and painter.

  • SERĀJ AL-AḴBĀR-E AFḠĀNIYA

    May Schinasi

    “Torch of the news of Afghanistan,” bi-monthly Persian language newspaper published in Kabul during the second decade of the reign of Amir Ḥabib-Allāh (r. 1901-19).

  • ŠERVĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    (ŠIRVĀN, ŠARVĀN), a region of Eastern Transcaucasia, known by this name in both early Islamic and more recent times, and now (since 1994) substantially within the independent Azerbaijan Republic.

  • ŠERVĀNŠAHS

    C. E. Bosworth

    (Šarvānšāhs), the various lines of rulers, originally Arab in ethnos but speedily Persianized within their culturally Persian environment, who ruled in the eastern Caucasian region of Šervān from mid-ʿAbbasid times until the age of the Safavids.

  • SEVRUGUIN, ANTOIN

    Aphrodite Désirée Navab

    Antoin decided to return to Tbilisi and continue his studies in painting and photography. There, he befriended the Russian photographer Dmitri Ivanovich Jermakov (1845-1916). From 1870 Jermakov traveled regularly throughout Persia, producing 127 albums and 24,556 negatives. Sevruguin decided to emulate Jermakov and crete his own survey of the people, landscape, and architecture of Persia.

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  • Šeydā

    Margaret Caton

    the pen name of Mirzā ʿAli-Akbar Širāzi (b. Shiraz, 1259/1843; d. Tehran at the Ṣafi ʿAlišāh ḵānaqāh, 1324/1906), a Persian musician regarded as the most important composer of the lyrical popular song (taṣnif) in the late Qajar period.

  • SHADDADIDS

    Andrew Peacock

    Caucasian dynasty of Kurdish origin reigning from about 950 until 1200, first in Dvin and Ganja, later in Ani.

  • SHADMAN, Sayyed Fakhr-al-Din

    Ali Gheissari

    (1907-1967), cultural critic and writer of fiction, professor of history, civil servant, and cabinet minister.