Table of Contents

  • LITERACY CORPS

    Farian Sabahi

    (Sepāh-e dāneš), educational program implemented in Iran in the framework of the White Revolution (1963-79) during the reign of Muhammad-Reza Pahlavi (1941-79). With the Literacy Corps, education to some extent escaped the control of the ʿolamāʾ, who used to shape the younger generation along traditional lines.

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  • LITHOGRAPHY i. IN PERSIA

    Olimpiada P. Shcheglova

    The first lithographic printing press was brought to Persia in 1821 from Tiflis (Tbilisi), on the orders of the Crown Prince, ʿAbbās Mirzā. The Persian painter Allāhverdi who had studied lithography there, returned to Tabriz in March 1821 with a complete set of lithographic equipment.

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  • LITHOGRAPHY ii. IN INDIA

    Olimpiada P. Shcheglova

    From the 19th century to the first decade of the 20th, India was at the hub of a great expansion in lithographic printing. Hundreds of lithographic printing houses flourished in India, and although books in Persian were only a part of their production, it was there that the largest number of Persian lithographed books was published.

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  • LITHOGRAPHY iii. IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Olimpiada P. Shcheglova

    Lithographic book printing began in Central Asia in the late 19th century: in the khanate of Khiva, 1874 (in Turkic languages only), in Turkistan in Tashkent, 1881, and in the khanate of Bukhara, 1901. The bulk of lithographed books in Oriental languages were published in Tashkent.

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  • LITHOGRAPHY iv. LITHOGRAPHED ILLUSTRATIONS

    Ulrich Marzolph

    The first illustrated Persian lithographed book is the 1259/1843 edition of Maktabi’s Leili o Majnun.

  • LIZARDS

    Steven C. Anderson

    reptiles belonging to the order Squamata; second to birds, they are the most often seen vertebrates in Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia, especially during daylight hours. “Lizard” is a colloquial term for these reptiles that are members of a larger evolutionary group that includes snakes.

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  • LOCKHART, LAURENCE

    Ernest Tucker

    Lockhart returned to the company’s London headquarters in 1930 and served there until 1939.  During this period, he continued to engage in academic pursuits in parallel with his business career, publishing numerous short scholarly pieces on a wide range of topics.  In his spare time, he conducted extensive research on Iran and Iranian history.

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  • LOCKS AND LOCKSMITHS IN IRAN

    Parviz Tanavoli

    Locks have been made in Iran since at least the second millennium BCE. The most ancient lock, dating to the 13th century BCE, was excavated at the ziggurat of Choga Zanbil in Khuzestan. Throughout the Islamic period in Iran, locks were made in all shapes and sizes.

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  • LOCUST

    Cyrus Abivardi

    (in modern taxonomy, Pers. malaḵ-e mohājer), the term used for any gregarious, short-horned grasshopper. The generic Persian term malaḵ (vs. Mid. Pers. mayg in the Pahlavi Vendidad; Av. maδaxa-) is regarded as a borrowing from an Eastern Iranian language (cf. Pashto malax[ay]).

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  • LOMMEL, HERMAN

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    German scholar of Indo-European, chiefly Indo-Iranian studies, and also of religious studies.