Table of Contents


    Ulrich Marzolph

    The first illustrated Persian lithographed book is the 1259/1843 edition of Maktabi’s Leili o Majnun.


    Steven C. Anderson

    reptiles belonging to the order Squamata; second to birds, they are the most often seen vertebrates in Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia, especially during daylight hours. “Lizard” is a colloquial term for these reptiles that are members of a larger evolutionary group that includes snakes.

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    Ernest Tucker

    Lockhart returned to the company’s London headquarters in 1930 and served there until 1939.  During this period, he continued to engage in academic pursuits in parallel with his business career, publishing numerous short scholarly pieces on a wide range of topics.  In his spare time, he conducted extensive research on Iran and Iranian history.

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    Parviz Tanavoli

    Locks have been made in Iran since at least the second millennium BCE. The most ancient lock, dating to the 13th century BCE, was excavated at the ziggurat of Choga Zanbil in Khuzestan. Throughout the Islamic period in Iran, locks were made in all shapes and sizes.

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    Cyrus Abivardi

    (in modern taxonomy, Pers. malaḵ-e mohājer), the term used for any gregarious, short-horned grasshopper. The generic Persian term malaḵ (vs. Mid. Pers. mayg in the Pahlavi Vendidad; Av. maδaxa-) is regarded as a borrowing from an Eastern Iranian language (cf. Pashto malax[ay]).

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    Rüdiger Schmitt

    German scholar of Indo-European, chiefly Indo-Iranian studies, and also of religious studies.


    Colin MacKinnon

    These are spoken by both settled and migratory folk over a large area of western Iran, including parts of Hamadan Province (at least from Nehāvand southward) through Lorestān to Khuzestan, Čahār Maḥāl and Baḵtiāri, Kohgiluya and Boir Aḥmadi, and Fārs.


    Multiple Authors

    the language of one of Iran’s major ethnic groups, spoken by five million people over the length of the Zagros range. This entry consist of two parts i. Lori dialects  ii. Sociolinguistic status of Lori

  • LORI LANGUAGE ii. Sociolinguistic Status of Lori

    Erik J. Anonby

    The array of related dialects collectively known as Lori (autonym: lurī) is spoken among the Lori and Baḵtiāri peoples of the Zagros mountains of western and southwestern Iran and surrounding areas.

  • LORIMER, David i. In Persia

    Fereydun Vahman and Garnik Asatrian

    (1876-1962), British Iranist and military and intelligence officer. He had a keen interest in the dialect and folklore of the region. He used to collect his material on dialects from elderly informants and would spend the evenings working with them. He collaborated with his wife, who helped make several typewritten drafts of the materials. 

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