Table of Contents


    Eskandar Firouz

    (Panthera pardus, Pers. Palang), the largest and most powerful member of the cat family still occurring in Iran. The Persian leopard is very variable in both size and coloration, depending on the conditions of the natural environment of its range.

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    Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam

    (1862-ca. 1920), MIRZĀ ʿALI KHAN, royal librarian. His career at the royal court began in Tabriz in 1891.

  • LEWIS, David Malcolm

    Amılie Kuhrt

    Lewis was educated at the City of London School and Corpus Christi, Oxford, where he studied the traditional Classics curriculum in Greek and Latin, philosophy and ancient history (1945-1949). After National Service in the Royal Army Education Corps (1949-1951), he pursued graduate studies at Princeton, NJ with two leading historians of classical Greece before returning to Oxford.

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    John R. Perry

    the compiling of dictionaries, glossaries, and vocabularies of a language or a particular lexical corpus.


    A. A. Seyed-Gohrab

    narrative poem of approximately 4,600 lines composed in 584/1188 by the famous poet Neẓāmi of Ganja.


    Willem Floor

    Before the widespread use of electricity in Iran, the main illuminants were vegetable oils and animal fat.


    Ahmad Aryavand and Bahram Grami

    a fragrant shrub of the olive family. Different varieties exist with blue and purple flowers, used for aroma, decorative, and medicinal purposes. The Persian lilac is a small shrub and has been a garden favorite in Iran for centuries and today occurs in various parts of the country.

  • LILY

    Ahmad Aryavand and Bahram Grami

    (susan in Persian and Arabic), the name of herbaceous and bulbous flowering plants of the lily family, lilies are among the oldest cultivated plants. Persian poets have likened the lily’s petal to the human tongue.

  • LIME


    a solid, white substance consisting essentially of calcium oxide. See ĀHAK.


    Parviz Tanavoli

    (gabba-ye širi), a group of Persian rugs with the image of the lion as the main motif. The majority of the existing lion rugs are the work of Baḵtiāri and Qašqāʾi tribes in southwest Iran and were woven during the 19th and 20th centuries.

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