Table of Contents

  • LĀHIJĀN

    Christian Bromberger

    a city in the province of Gilān.  It is located at 37°12′ N, long 50°0′ E, to the east of the lower reaches of Safidrud at an altitude of 4 m.

  • LĀHŪRĪ, ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD

    Cross-reference

    17th-century Indo-Persian historian and author of the Pādšāh-nāma, the official account of the reign of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahān (1037-67/1628-57). See ʿABD-AL-ḤAMĪD LĀHŪRĪ.

  • LAHUTI, Abu’l-Qasem

    Kāmyār ʿĀbedi

    (1887-1957), Marxist poet, political activist, and an important contributor to the modern of poetry of Tajikistan.

  • LĀḴ-MAZĀR

    V. A. Livshits

    “Rocky sacred place (?),” name applied to gorges not far from the settlement of Kuč, 29 km southeast of Birjand in Khorasan Province (ostān). 

  • LAKHMIDS

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    an Arab dynasty that ruled in central Iraq with their capital at Ḥira for roughly three centuries, from about 300 to 602 CE, generally but intermittently as the allies and clients of the Sasanian kings of Persia.

  • LANGARUD

    Marcel Bazin and Christian Bromberger

    a city and sub-provincial district (šahrestān) in Gilān located at lat 37°11′ N, long 50°09′ E on the Langarud River, which cuts through the city, dividing it into two parts.

  • LĀRAK

    Daniel T. Potts

    a small island in the Straits of Hormuz to the south of Hormuz Island, located approximately 45 kms southeast of Bandar Abbas and 18 kms southeast of the eastern end of Qeshm Island at lat 26°51′0″ N, long 56°21′0″ E. 

  • LARK

    Cross-Reference

    See ČAKĀVAK.

  • LAŠANI

    Pierre Oberling

    a Turkicized Kurdish tribe in Fārs. The Lašani accompanied Karim Khan Zand to the province in the mid-18th century.

  • LAURENS, Jules Joseph Augustin

    Jacqueline Calmard-Compas

    (1825-1901), French artist in drawing, painting, and lithography who depicted Oriental and other subjects.

  • LAWḤ

    M. Momen and B. T. Lawson

    (tablet), a term used distinctively in the Bahai writings as part of the title of individual compositions of Bahāʾ-Allāh addressed to individuals or groups of individuals.

  • LAYARD, Austen Henry

    John Curtis

    Layard is chiefly known for his excavations in northern Iraq between 1845 and 1851. He worked at the Assyrian sites of Nimrud and Nineveh, the North-West Palace of Assurnasirpal II and South-West Palace of Sennacherib, where he found stone bas-reliefs and figures as well as cuneiform tablets and small objects in bronze, glass, and ivory.

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  • LĀYEQ ŠĒR-ʿALI

    Keith Hitchins

    (1941-2000), Tajik poet, editor, and public intellectual. Lāyeq continually expanded the boundaries of Tajik poetry through his restless urge to experiment, to cultivate new means of expression and new forms. Despite his eagerness to innovate, he remained faithful to certain traditions. A number of his poems of the 1980s and 1990s observed the norms of Persian-Tajik poetry.

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  • LE STRANGE, GUY

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (1854-1933), scholar in Persian, Arabic, and Spanish, specially notable for his work in the field of the historical geography of the pre-modern Middle Eastern and Eastern Islamic lands and his editing of Persian geographical texts. Le Strange’s chef d’œuvre is, however, undoubtedly The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate(1905).  

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  • LENTIL

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿADAS.

  • LENTZ, OTTO HELMUT WOLFGANG

    Gerd Gropp

    Lentz wrote no voluminous book, but many essays in periodicals, including some pioneer works on Turfan texts, Iranian dialects, local eastern systems of time reckoning, and loan words in Mid. Iranian. His doctoral dissertation (supervised by Andreas) on North Iranian elements in the Šāh-nāma (1926) won him immediate recognition.

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  • LEOPARD

    Eskandar Firouz

    (Panthera pardus, Pers. Palang), the largest and most powerful member of the cat family still occurring in Iran. The Persian leopard is very variable in both size and coloration, depending on the conditions of the natural environment of its range.

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  • LESĀN-AL-DAWLA

    Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam

    , MIRZĀ ʿALI KHAN (1862-ca. 1920), royal librarian. His career at the royal court began in Tabriz in 1891.

  • LEWIS, David Malcolm

    Amılie Kuhrt

    Lewis was educated at the City of London School and Corpus Christi, Oxford, where he studied the traditional Classics curriculum in Greek and Latin, philosophy and ancient history (1945-1949). After National Service in the Royal Army Education Corps (1949-1951), he pursued graduate studies at Princeton, NJ with two leading historians of classical Greece before returning to Oxford.

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  • LEXICOGRAPHY

    John R. Perry

    the compiling of dictionaries, glossaries, and vocabularies of a language or a particular lexical corpus.

  • LEYLI O MAJNUN

    A. A. Seyed-Gohrab

    narrative poem of approximately 4,600 lines composed in 584/1188 by the famous poet Neẓāmi of Ganja.

  • LIGHTING EQUIPMENT AND HEATING FUEL

    Willem Floor

    Before the widespread use of electricity in Iran, the main illuminants were vegetable oils and animal fat.

  • LIME

    Cross-Reference

    a solid, white substance consisting essentially of calcium oxide. See ĀHAK.

  • LION RUGS

    Parviz Tanavoli

    (gabba-ye širi), a group of Persian rugs with the image of the lion as the main motif. The majority of the existing lion rugs are the work of Baḵtiāri and Qašqāʾi tribes in southwest Iran and were woven during the 19th and 20th centuries.

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  • LION TOMBSTONES

    Pedram Khosronejad

    (šir-e sangi or bardšir “stone lion” in Lori), a type of tombstone in the form of a lion, found mostly on the graves of Lor and Qašqāʾi nomads in the west, southwest, and parts of southern Persia. These stylized, sculptured lions stare out from isolated Baḵtiāri graveyards in many valleys and along the migration routes of the tribes across the Zagros Mountains.

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  • LITERACY CORPS

    Farian Sabahi

    (Sepāh-e dāneš), educational program implemented in Iran in the framework of the White Revolution (1963-79) during the reign of Muhammad-Reza Pahlavi (1941-79). With the Literacy Corps, education to some extent escaped the control of the ʿolamāʾ, who used to shape the younger generation along traditional lines.

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  • LITHOGRAPHY i. IN PERSIA

    Olimpiada P. Shcheglova

    The first lithographic printing press was brought to Persia in 1821 from Tiflis (Tbilisi), on the orders of the Crown Prince, ʿAbbās Mirzā. The Persian painter Allāhverdi who had studied lithography there, returned to Tabriz in March 1821 with a complete set of lithographic equipment.

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  • LITHOGRAPHY ii. IN INDIA

    Olimpiada P. Shcheglova

    From the 19th century to the first decade of the 20th, India was at the hub of a great expansion in lithographic printing. Hundreds of lithographic printing houses flourished in India, and although books in Persian were only a part of their production, it was there that the largest number of Persian lithographed books was published.

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  • LITHOGRAPHY iii. IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Olimpiada P. Shcheglova

    Lithographic book printing began in Central Asia in the late 19th century: in the khanate of Khiva, 1874 (in Turkic languages only), in Turkistan in Tashkent, 1881, and in the khanate of Bukhara, 1901. The bulk of lithographed books in Oriental languages were published in Tashkent.

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  • LITHOGRAPHY iv. LITHOGRAPHED ILLUSTRATIONS

    Ulrich Marzolph

    The first illustrated Persian lithographed book is the 1259/1843 edition of Maktabi’s Leili o Majnun.

  • LIZARDS

    Steven C. Anderson

    reptiles belonging to the order Squamata; second to birds, they are the most often seen vertebrates in Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia, especially during daylight hours. “Lizard” is a colloquial term for these reptiles that are members of a larger evolutionary group that includes snakes.

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  • LOCKHART, LAURENCE

    Ernest Tucker

    Lockhart returned to the company’s London headquarters in 1930 and served there until 1939.  During this period, he continued to engage in academic pursuits in parallel with his business career, publishing numerous short scholarly pieces on a wide range of topics.  In his spare time, he conducted extensive research on Iran and Iranian history.

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  • LOCKS AND LOCKSMITHS IN IRAN

    Parviz Tanavoli

    Locks have been made in Iran since at least the second millennium BCE. The most ancient lock, dating to the 13th century BCE, was excavated at the ziggurat of Choga Zanbil in Khuzestan. Throughout the Islamic period in Iran, locks were made in all shapes and sizes.

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  • LOCUST

    Cyrus Abivardi

    (in modern taxonomy, Pers. malaḵ-e mohājer), the term used for any gregarious, short-horned grasshopper. The generic Persian term malaḵ (vs. Mid. Pers. mayg in the Pahlavi Vendidad; Av. maδaxa-) is regarded as a borrowing from an Eastern Iranian language (cf. Pashto malax[ay]).

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  • LOMMEL, HERMAN

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    German scholar of Indo-European, chiefly Indo-Iranian studies, and also of religious studies.

  • LORI DIALECTS

    Colin MacKinnon

    These are spoken by both settled and migratory folk over a large area of western Iran, including parts of Hamadan Province (at least from Nehāvand southward) through Lorestān to Khuzestan, Čahār Maḥāl and Baḵtiāri, Kohgiluya and Boir Aḥmadi, and Fārs.

  • LORI LANGUAGE

    Multiple Authors

    the language of one of Iran’s major ethnic groups, spoken by five million people over the length of the Zagros range. This entry consist of two parts i. Lori dialects  ii. Sociolinguistic status of Lori

  • LORI LANGUAGE ii. Sociolinguistic Status of Lori

    Erik J. Anonby

    The array of related dialects collectively known as Lori (autonym: lurī) is spoken among the Lori and Baḵtiāri peoples of the Zagros mountains of western and southwestern Iran and surrounding areas.

  • LORIMER, David i. In Persia

    Fereydun Vahman and Garnik Asatrian

    (1876-1962), British Iranist and military and intelligence officer. He had a keen interest in the dialect and folklore of the region. He used to collect his material on dialects from elderly informants and would spend the evenings working with them. He collaborated with his wife, who helped make several typewritten drafts of the materials. 

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  • LOTERĀʾI

    Martin Schwartz

    term used by Iranian Jews for speech using local Judeo-Iranian grammar with a special exotic substitutive vocabulary.

  • LOUVRE MUSEUM i. IRANIAN ANTIQUITIES IN THE COLLECTIONS

    Pierre Amiet

    In 1793, when the Louvre Museum (Musıe du Louvre) was created under the name of Central Museum of Arts (Musıe Centrale des Arts), antiquities were exclusively represented by Greek and Roman sculptures.

  • LOUVRE MUSEUM ii. PERSIAN ART IN THE ISLAMIC COLLECTION

    Sophie Makariou

    In 1893 a section devoted to “Muslim Art” was created within the Département des objets d’art, and from the outset objects from Persia have been a most important part of this collection.

  • LUKONIN, Vladimir Grigor’evich

    Muhammad Dandamayev and Inna Medvedskaya

    (1932-1984), outstanding Russian scholar in the field of history and history of culture and arts of ancient Iran, from the earliest times until the end of the Sasanian period. He published and introduced to scholarship many artifacts of Iranian culture preserved at the Hermitage Museum, including the unique hoard of Iranian silver drachms of the 3rd century CE and some objects of early Sasanian toreutics.

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  • LULUBI

    Ran Zadok

    country of a people who probably originated in southern Kurdistan; the form of the name is identical in both Sumerian and Akkadian, namely Lulubi and Lulubum respectively.

  • LURISTAN

    Multiple Authors

    major province in Iran

  • LURISTAN iv. The Origin of Nomadism

    Inge Demant Mortensen and Peder Mortensen

    The large valleys and plains of Luristan are exceedingly fertile.  They have often been described as suited for agriculture as well as for pastoral nomadism, which seems to have been the prevailing lifestyle for hundreds of years.

  • LURISTAN BRONZES i. THE FIELD RESEARCH

    Bruno Overlaet

    The label “Luristan bronzes”  designates a series of decorated bronze objects in a specific local style dating from the Iron Age (ca. 1300/1250 to 700/650 BCE). These bronzes became known through large-scale illegal excavations starting in the late 1920s, but their cultural context and provenance remained uncertain for a long time and the label is often wrongfully used—usually for commercial reasons—for bronze objects from other regions or periods.

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  • LURISTAN BRONZES ii. CHRONOLOGY

    Bruno Overlaet

    The first documented Luristan bronze acquired by a European museum, “a master of animals idol,” was purchased in 1854 by the British Museum. The first publication about a Luristan bronze in a scholarly journal dates from 1918. It attributed a Luristan horse bit with decorated cheek pieces to Armenia.

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  • LUSCHEY, Heinz

    Wolfram Kleiss

    After his military service during the Second World War, Luschey worked as an assistant at the Archaeological Seminar of the University of Tübingen. In 1956 he became assistant director of the Istanbul branch of the German Archaeological Institute.

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  • LUT

    Cross-Reference

    Persian word meaning “desert.” See DESERT.

  • LUṬI

    Willem Floor

    A Persian term with a variety of meanings, with both positive and negative connotations.

  • LYSANDER

    Ernst Badian

    (ca. 454-395 BCE), Spartan commander and politician.

  • L~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter L entries.