Table of Contents

  • LAWḤ

    M. Momen and B. T. Lawson

    (tablet), a term used distinctively in the Bahai writings as part of the title of individual compositions of Bahāʾ-Allāh addressed to individuals or groups of individuals.

  • LAYARD, Austen Henry

    John Curtis

    Layard is chiefly known for his excavations in northern Iraq between 1845 and 1851. He worked at the Assyrian sites of Nimrud and Nineveh, the North-West Palace of Assurnasirpal II and South-West Palace of Sennacherib, where he found stone bas-reliefs and figures as well as cuneiform tablets and small objects in bronze, glass, and ivory.

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  • LE STRANGE, GUY

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (1854-1933), scholar in Persian, Arabic, and Spanish, specially notable for his work in the field of the historical geography of the pre-modern Middle Eastern and Eastern Islamic lands and his editing of Persian geographical texts. Le Strange’s chef d’œuvre is, however, undoubtedly The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate(1905).  

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  • LENTIL

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿADAS.

  • LENTZ, OTTO HELMUT WOLFGANG

    Gerd Gropp

    Lentz wrote no voluminous book, but many essays in periodicals, including some pioneer works on Turfan texts, Iranian dialects, local eastern systems of time reckoning, and loan words in Mid. Iranian. His doctoral dissertation (supervised by Andreas) on North Iranian elements in the Šāh-nāma (1926) won him immediate recognition.

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  • LEOPARD

    Eskandar Firouz

    (Panthera pardus, Pers. Palang), the largest and most powerful member of the cat family still occurring in Iran. The Persian leopard is very variable in both size and coloration, depending on the conditions of the natural environment of its range.

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  • LESĀN-AL-DAWLA

    Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam

    , MIRZĀ ʿALI KHAN (1862-ca. 1920), royal librarian. His career at the royal court began in Tabriz in 1891.

  • LEWIS, David Malcolm

    Amılie Kuhrt

    Lewis was educated at the City of London School and Corpus Christi, Oxford, where he studied the traditional Classics curriculum in Greek and Latin, philosophy and ancient history (1945-1949). After National Service in the Royal Army Education Corps (1949-1951), he pursued graduate studies at Princeton, NJ with two leading historians of classical Greece before returning to Oxford.

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  • LEXICOGRAPHY

    John R. Perry

    the compiling of dictionaries, glossaries, and vocabularies of a language or a particular lexical corpus.

  • LEYLI O MAJNUN

    A. A. Seyed-Gohrab

    narrative poem of approximately 4,600 lines composed in 584/1188 by the famous poet Neẓāmi of Ganja.