Table of Contents

  • LAURENS, Jules Joseph Augustin

    Jacqueline Calmard-Compas

    (1825-1901), French artist in drawing, painting, and lithography who depicted Oriental and other subjects.

  • LAWḤ

    M. Momen and B. T. Lawson

    (tablet), a term used distinctively in the Bahai writings as part of the title of individual compositions of Bahāʾ-Allāh addressed to individuals or groups of individuals.

  • LAYARD, Austen Henry

    John Curtis

    Layard is chiefly known for his excavations in northern Iraq between 1845 and 1851. He worked at the Assyrian sites of Nimrud and Nineveh, the North-West Palace of Assurnasirpal II and South-West Palace of Sennacherib, where he found stone bas-reliefs and figures as well as cuneiform tablets and small objects in bronze, glass, and ivory.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • LĀYEQ ŠĒR-ʿALI

    Keith Hitchins

    (1941-2000), Tajik poet, editor, and public intellectual. Lāyeq continually expanded the boundaries of Tajik poetry through his restless urge to experiment, to cultivate new means of expression and new forms. Despite his eagerness to innovate, he remained faithful to certain traditions. A number of his poems of the 1980s and 1990s observed the norms of Persian-Tajik poetry.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • LE STRANGE, GUY

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (1854-1933), scholar in Persian, Arabic, and Spanish, specially notable for his work in the field of the historical geography of the pre-modern Middle Eastern and Eastern Islamic lands and his editing of Persian geographical texts. Le Strange’s chef d’œuvre is, however, undoubtedly The Lands of the Eastern Caliphate(1905).  

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • LENTIL

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿADAS.

  • LENTZ, OTTO HELMUT WOLFGANG

    Gerd Gropp

    Lentz wrote no voluminous book, but many essays in periodicals, including some pioneer works on Turfan texts, Iranian dialects, local eastern systems of time reckoning, and loan words in Mid. Iranian. His doctoral dissertation (supervised by Andreas) on North Iranian elements in the Šāh-nāma (1926) won him immediate recognition.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • LEOPARD

    Eskandar Firouz

    (Panthera pardus, Pers. Palang), the largest and most powerful member of the cat family still occurring in Iran. The Persian leopard is very variable in both size and coloration, depending on the conditions of the natural environment of its range.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • LESĀN-AL-DAWLA

    Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam

    , MIRZĀ ʿALI KHAN (1862-ca. 1920), royal librarian. His career at the royal court began in Tabriz in 1891.

  • LEWIS, David Malcolm

    Amılie Kuhrt

    Lewis was educated at the City of London School and Corpus Christi, Oxford, where he studied the traditional Classics curriculum in Greek and Latin, philosophy and ancient history (1945-1949). After National Service in the Royal Army Education Corps (1949-1951), he pursued graduate studies at Princeton, NJ with two leading historians of classical Greece before returning to Oxford.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.