Table of Contents

  • KANDAHAR iii. Early Islamic Period

    Minoru Inaba

    Kandahar and its surroundings have been an important junction connecting Iran and India since ancient times.

  • KANDAHAR v. In the 19th Century

    Shah Mahmoud Hanifi

    city in southern Afghanistan (lat 31°36′28″ N, long 65°42′19″ E), the second most important in the country and the capital of Kandahar province.

  • KANDAHAR vi. 20th Century, 1901-73

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    city in southern Afghanistan (lat 31°36′28″ N, long 65°42′19″ E). Kandahar expanded substantially during the second half of the 20th century by attracting rural labor and by developing new residential quarters (šahr-e naw) and public buildings. 

  • KANDAHAR vii. From 1973 to the Present

    Antonio Giustozzi

    Mohammad Daoud Khan took power in July 1973, his ban on party political activities hit Kandahar too.

  • KANDAHAR iv. From The Mongol Invasion Through the Safavid Era

    Rudi Matthee and Hiroyuki Mashita

    There are various reasons why, despite the manifest weaknesses of the Safavid army, Kandahar surrendered to the Safavids.


    Michael G. Morony

    a Persian loanword in Arabic meaning a trench or a moat (lit. “dug”), possibly also a wall or an enclosure.


    Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy

    (1908-1988), Parsi scholar of Zoroastrianism and Iranian languages. He held the position of Secretary of the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute in Bombay for 15 years and edited its Journal. He served as Professor of Avestan Studies at the University of Bombay. 

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    a Turkic tribe of Azerbaijan and the Qom-Verāmin region of central Persia. 


    Wolfram Kleiss

    town in eastern Kermanshah Province, on the modern road from Hamadan to Kermanshah, identical with a trace of the silk road. Isidorus of Charax (1st century CE) referred to it as Congobar and mentioned a temple of Anāhitā (Anaitis) there. The site has ruins of debated date and nature.

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    Pavel Lurje

    (lit. “Fortress of Kang,”), a mythical, paradise-like fortress in Iranian folklore. There are different and often contradictory descriptions of Kang, Kangdež and several similar place names in Pahlavi literature and the epics of the Islamic period.