Table of Contents

  • KANDAHAR vi. 20th Century, 1901-73

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    city in southern Afghanistan (lat 31°36′28″ N, long 65°42′19″ E). Kandahar expanded substantially during the second half of the 20th century by attracting rural labor and by developing new residential quarters (šahr-e naw) and public buildings. 

  • KANDAHAR vii. From 1973 to the Present

    Antonio Giustozzi

    Mohammad Daoud Khan took power in July 1973, his ban on party political activities hit Kandahar too.


    Michael G. Morony

    a Persian loanword in Arabic meaning a trench or a moat (lit. “dug”), possibly also a wall or an enclosure.


    Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy

    (1908-1988), Parsi scholar of Zoroastrianism and Iranian languages. He held the position of Secretary of the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute in Bombay for 15 years and edited its Journal. He served as Professor of Avestan Studies at the University of Bombay. 

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    a Turkic tribe of Azerbaijan and the Qom-Verāmin region of central Persia. 


    Wolfram Kleiss

    town in eastern Kermanshah Province, on the modern road from Hamadan to Kermanshah, identical with a trace of the silk road. Isidorus of Charax (1st century CE) referred to it as Congobar and mentioned a temple of Anāhitā (Anaitis) there. The site has ruins of debated date and nature.

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    Pavel Lurje

    (lit. “Fortress of Kang,”), a mythical, paradise-like fortress in Iranian folklore. There are different and often contradictory descriptions of Kang, Kangdež and several similar place names in Pahlavi literature and the epics of the Islamic period.


    Hamid Algar

    Shiʿi scholar whose power and prominence in the affairs of Tehran for more than four decades earned him the semi-official title of raʾis al-mojtahedin (“chief of the mojtaheds”), as well as accusations of inordinate greed.

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    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    language mentioned in the 11th-century Turkish lexicon of Maḥmud al-Kāšḡari as being spoken in the villages near Kāšḡar.

  • ḴANJAR BEG, Mirzā

    Zeyaul Haque

    (d. 1567), a poet and scholar of sixteenth-century Mughal India, who attained a significant place in the history of Indo-Persian poetry due to his famous maṯnawi.