Table of Contents
Gerhard Böwering and Matthew Melvin-Koushki
an Islamic institution and physical establishment, principally reserved for Sufi dervishes to meet, reside, study, and assemble and pray together as a group in the presence of a Sufi master (Arabic, šayḵ, Persian, pir), who is teacher, educator, and leader of the group.
the second most important city in the country and the capital of Kandahar province. This entry is divided into seven parts: i. Historical geography to 1979. ii. Pre-Islamic monuments and remains. iii. Early Islamic period. iv. From the Mongol invasion through the Safavid era. v. In the 19th century. vi. 20th century, 1901-73. vii. From 1973 to the present.
Xavier de Planhol
The oasis clearly was destined to give rise to a major city that would control these rich lands with their grain fields, orchards, and gardens and manage the irrigation system they required. This urban center was situated near the top of the alluvial cone, where the Arḡandāb river runs from the mountains.This Article Has Images/Tables.
The ancient city of Kandahar lay along the Qaytul ridge, west of the modern city and was emptied of its population by Nāder Shah in 1738.
Kandahar and its surroundings have been an important junction connecting Iran and India since ancient times.
Rudi Matthee and Hiroyuki Mashita
There are various reasons why, despite the manifest weaknesses of the Safavid army, Kandahar surrendered to the Safavids.
Shah Mahmoud Hanifi
city in southern Afghanistan (lat 31°36′28″ N, long 65°42′19″ E), the second most important in the country and the capital of Kandahar province.
M. Jamil Hanifi
city in southern Afghanistan (lat 31°36′28″ N, long 65°42′19″ E). Kandahar expanded substantially during the second half of the 20th century by attracting rural labor and by developing new residential quarters (šahr-e naw) and public buildings.
Mohammad Daoud Khan took power in July 1973, his ban on party political activities hit Kandahar too.
Michael G. Morony
a Persian loanword in Arabic meaning a trench or a moat (lit. “dug”), possibly also a wall or an enclosure.