Table of Contents

  • JERUSALEM AND IRAN

    Hagith Sivan

    Twice Jerusalem came under Persian rule, the first time in the sixth century BCE, the second during the westward expansion of the Sasanian state in the early seventh century CE.

  • JESUITS IN SAFAVID PERSIA

    Rudi Matthee

    The Fathers of the Society of Jesus were the first European missionaries to enter the Persian Gulf in the 16th century.

  • JEVDET PASHA

    Osman G. Özgüdenli

    (1823-1895), Ottoman writer, historian, jurist, and statesman.

  • JEVDET, ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Osman G.

    (1869-1932), Ottoman poet, writer, translator, and thinker.

  • JEVRI, AHISKALI

    Osman G. Özgüdenli

    (1805-1875), Ottoman poet and translator, a professional soldier.

  • JEVRI, EBRĀHIM ČELEBI

    Osman G.

    (d. 1654), Ottoman poet and calligrapher.

  • JEWISH EXILARCHATE

    Jacob Neusner

    position of the head of the Jewish community in Babylonia in talmudic and medieval times, recognized in Sasanian times as an ethnarch, ruler of the ethnic group.

  • JEWS OF IRAN

    cross-reference

    See JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES.

  • JEYḤUNĀBĀDI

    Mojan Membrado

    , ḤĀJJ NEʿMAT-ALLĀH MOKRI (1871-1920), an influential mystic whose stated mission was to collect and record the previously oral traditions of the Ahl-e Ḥaqq.

  • JEZYA

    Vera B. Moreen

    the poll or capitation tax levied on members of non-Muslim monotheistic faith communities (Jews, Christians, and, eventually, Zoroastrians), who fell under the protection (ḏemma) of Muslim Arab conquerors.