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Vera B. Moreen
the poll or capitation tax levied on members of non-Muslim monotheistic faith communities (Jews, Christians, and, eventually, Zoroastrians), who fell under the protection (ḏemma) of Muslim Arab conquerors.
"holy war." See ISLAM IN IRAN xi. Jihad in Islam.
a ruler in northwestern India known to us from his coins and an inscription (1st cent. CE).
sub-province (šahrestān), town, and dam in Kerman Province. i. Geography. ii. Human geography and environment. iii. General survey of excavations. iv. Iconography of chlorite artifacts.
M. Badanj and EIr.
Located in the south of Kerman Province, the sub-province of Jiroft is bound by those of Kermān (north), Bam (east), ʿAnbarābād and Kahnuj (south), and Bāft (west).
Jiroft is the regional capital of the middle section of the Halil Rud valley, southern Kerman Province. The valley, oriented northwest to southeast, 400 km long, takes its source in the Zagros mountain range north of Jiroft and ends in the endorheic Jaz-murian basin.This Article Has Images/Tables.
Oscar White Muscarella
All the artifacts known to date that are accorded the Jiroft label have not been excavated; they have in fact been plundered.
Technical variations, notably in the inlaying method of colored stones, point to the existence of several workshops. Considering style, the aesthetic ratio of the whole is comparatively high.This Article Has Images/Tables.
a medical text in Sanskrit and Khotanese belonging to the Indian Ayurvedic tradition.
Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy
“(consecrated) milk,” the designation for one of the organic items—now a mixture of milk and consecrated water—used in the high or inner liturgical rituals of the Zoroastrians.