Table of Contents

  • INDIA xiv. Persian Literature in India

    Mario Casari

    The amount of Persian literature composed in the Indian subcontinent up to the 19th century is larger than that produced in Iran proper during the same period.

  • INDIA xv. Persian Correspondence Literature

    cross-reference

    See CORRESPONDENCE iv.

  • INDIA xvi. INDO-PERSIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY

    Stephen F. Dale

    Historical works in Persian began to appear in India in the era of the Delhi Sultanate during the late 13th to 14th centuries.

  • INDIA xvii. PERSIAN PRESS IN

    cross-reference

    See INDIA viii and INDIA ix. See also CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION vi and ḤABL AL-MATIN.

  • INDIA xviii. PERSIAN ELEMENTS IN INDIAN LANGUAGES

    Christopher Shackle

    Some Persian elements are present in most of the modern languages of the subcontinent of South Asia, as a consequence of the prolonged cultivation of Persian associated with pre-modern Indo-Muslim culture.

  • INDIA xix. INDIAN LITERARY INFLUENCES ON PERSIAN LITERATURE

    Cross-Reference

    Iranian-Indian literary influences on Persian literature will be discussed in a future online entry.

  • INDIA xx. PERSIAN INFLUENCES ON INDIAN PAINTING

    Barbara Schmitz

    Between about 1300 and 1600, Persian painting styles had a sustained impact on the Indian art at the Sultanate and Mughal courts as well as on Hindu painting styles. The earliest dated manuscripts from the subcontinent that rely on Persian models for some of their motifs are from the late 14th century.

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  • INDIA xxi. INDIAN INFLUENCES ON PERSIAN PAINTING

    Barbara Schmitz

    During the 17th century, the flow of artistic influences between Persia and India reversed. Paintings and drawings in the developed Mughal style of the first quarter of the century were imported to the courts and bazaars of Isfahan.

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  • INDIA xxii. PERSIAN INFLUENCE ON INDIAN ARCHITECTURE

    cross-reference

    See DECCAN ii; DELHI SULTANATE ii; GARDEN iii; HYDERABAD ii.

  • INDIA xxiii. INDIAN INFLUENCE ON PERSIAN CINEMA

    cross-reference

    See x, above.

  • INDIA xxiv. PERSIAN CALLIGRAPHY IN

    Cross-Reference

    Forthcoming.

  • INDIA xxv. MUTUAL MYSTICAL INFLUENCES

    cross-reference

    See under SUFISM.

  • INDIA xxvi. MUTUAL MUSICAL INFLUENCES

    cross-reference

      See under MUSIC.

  • INDIA xxvii. MUTUAL SCIENTIFIC INFLUENCES

    cross-reference

    See under SCIENCE.

  • INDIA xxviii. IRANIAN IMMIGRANTS IN INDIA

    Masashi Haneda

    Although emigration from the Iranian plateau to the Indian subcontinent is not a phenomenon specific to any particular period, the trend does seem to have grown after the foundation of Muslim governments on the subcontinent.

  • INDIA xxix. SHIʿITE COMMUNITIES IN

    Cross-Reference

    See CONVERSION iii. TO IMAMI SHI'ISM IN INDIA.

  • INDIA xxx. INDIAN MERCHANTS IN CENTRAL ASIA AND IRAN

    Scott C. Levi

    The Indian merchant diaspora in Central Asia and Persia emerged in the mid-16th century and remained active for over four centuries.

  • INDIA xxxi. INDIAN MERCHANTS IN 19TH-CENTURY AFGHANISTAN

    Shah Mahmoud Hanifi

    Indian communities in Afghanistan performed an array of commercial functions in both the private and state sectors that served to integrate the Afghan economy and link it to surrounding markets in Central and South Asia.

  • INDIA xxxii. PARSI COMMUNITIES

    Cross-Reference

     See PARSI COMMUNITIES i. and PARSI COMMUNITIES ii.

  • INDIA xxxiii. INDO-MUSLIM PHYSICIANS

    Fabrizio Speziale

    Medicine constitutes the scientific field on which the largest corpus of works has been composed in Muslim India.

  • INDIAN OCEAN

    D. T. Potts

    This entry will deal with the role of Indian Ocean in international trade in the following periods:

    i. Pre-Islamic period. ii. Islamic Period. See Supplement.

  • INDIGO

    Carol Bier

    (Pers. nil), the common name of a broad genus, Indigofera, with numerous species. Many tribal groups in Persia have relied on the use of indigo to achieve a stable blue color for the wool of carpets and kilims.

  • INDO-EUROPEAN TELEGRAPH COMPANY

    Michael Rubin

    (IETC), a telegraph company that controlled telegraph wires between Tehran and the Russian border and onward through Russia and Germany to London.

  • INDO-EUROPEAN TELEGRAPH DEPARTMENT

    Michael Rubin

    (IETD), a branch of the British Government of India, based in London, which managed a series of telegraph lines in Iran.

  • INDO-GREEK DYNASTY

    Osmund Bopearachchi

    Greco-Bactrian kings who ruled over the region south of the Hindu Kush in the second and first century B.C.E.

  • INDO-IRANIAN FRONTIER LANGUAGES

    Elena Bashir

    This article surveys Indo-Iranian frontier languages the territory of present-day Pakistan, which have been under the cultural and linguistic influence of successive stages of the Persian language since the time of the Achaemenid Empire.

  • INDO-IRANIAN LANGUAGES

    cross-reference

    See IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS.

  • INDO-IRANIAN RELIGION

    Gherardo Gnoli

    Indo-Iranian comparative studies enable us to distinguish a fund of religious concepts, beliefs, and practices that are common to ancient Iran and ancient India.

  • INDO-PARTHIAN DYNASTY

    Christine Fröhlich

    The rulers of both dynasties took every opportunity to capture Kandahar, which changed hands between the two on a dozen occasions. While maritime disturbances were known to have driven merchants to use the caravan routes, during the periods of Mughal-Safavid rivalry over Kandahar, merchants would temporarily favor the more predictable maritime routes.

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  • INDO-SCYTHIAN DYNASTY

    R. C. Senior

    from Maues, the first (Indo-)Scythian king of India (ca. 120-85 BCE) to the mid-1st century CE. When precisely and under what circumstances Maues arrived in India is uncertain, but the expulsion of the Scythian (Saka/Sai) peoples from Central Asia is referred to in the Han Shu, where the cause given is their confrontation with the Ta Yüeh-chih, themselves undergoing an enforced migration.

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  • INDRA

    W. W. Malandra

    the name of a minor demon (daēwa) in the Avesta, In sharp contrast to the Indra of the Ṛgveda [RV], the most celebrated god (devá) of the Vedic pantheon.

  • INDUS RIVER

    cross-reference

    See INDIA ii.

  • INDUSTRIALIZATION

    Multiple Authors

    : the foundation and development of modern industries in 20th-century Iran. Although generally characterized as an oil economy, Iran has a relatively rich history of industrialization going back to the early 20th century.

  • INDUSTRIALIZATION i. THE REZA SHAH PERIOD AND ITS AFTERMATH, 1925-53

    Hassan Hakimian

    Archaic and underdeveloped infrastructure as well as a low level of human resources (lack of skilled and technical manpower) were limiting factors. The situation was, however, to undergo important changes after the 1920s, paving the way for the emergence of Iran’s nascent industrial sector from the 1930s onwards.

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  • INDUSTRIALIZATION ii. THE MOHAMMAD REZA SHAH PERIOD, 1953-79

    M. Karshenas and H. Hakimian

    Public sector investment in this period started from a very slender base but soon witnessed an annual growth rate of 25 percent in real terms. According to the development expenditure data from the Plan Organization, more than 68 percent of government investment went into economic infrastructure, which was mainly composed of transportation and water.

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  • INDUSTRIALIZATION iii. THE POST-REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1979-2000

    Parvin Alizadeh

    Available evidence, in fact, indicates that the share of the manufacturing sector in the economy declined after the Revolution. The share of manufacturing, which was around 19-20 percent of non-oil GDP by 1977, dropped to about 15 percent by 1990. The share of agriculture in Iran’s non-oil GDP, however, increased over the same period.

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  • INDUSTRY, TRADITIONAL

    cross-reference

    See CRAFTS.

  • INFLUENZA

    A. A. Afkhami

    In Persia, the first established evidence of influenza’s visitation dates back to the summer of 1833, when it erupted with great virulence in Tehran.

  • INHERITANCE

    Multiple Authors

    i. Sasanian period. ii. Islamic period.

  • INHERITANCE i. SASANIAN PERIOD

    Maria Macuch

    Our main source on jurisprudence during the Sasanian period is the Lawbook Hazār dādestān “One Thousand Judgements” of the 7th century.

  • INHERITANCE ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Agostino Cilardo

    In the pre-Islamic period, the Arab family was socially and politically composed of males (ʿaṣaba), namely those who were able to fight and defend the common property.

  • INJU

    Cross-Reference

    See ḴĀLEṢA.

  • INJU DYNASTY

    John Limbert

    (ca. 1325-53), one of the minor dynasties that controlled Persia following the collapse of the Il-Khanid state.

  • INOSTRANTSEV, KONSTANTIN ALEXANDROVICH

    Aliy I. Kolesnikov

    (1876-1941), Russian orientalist and historian of culture, best known abroad as the author of Sasanidskie et’udy (Etudes sassanides).

  • INSCRIPTIONS

    cross-reference

    See EPIGRAPHY.

  • INSECTIVORES

    Steven C. Anderson

    members of the mammalian order, small animals with several conservative anatomical characteristics. They retain five digits on all limbs and walk or run with soles and heels on the ground (plantigrade). Three families are represented in Persia and Afghanistan: hedgehogs, family Erinaceidae; moles, family Talpidae; and shrews, family Soricidae.

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  • INSECTS

    Steven C. Anderson

    The insects of Persia and Afghanistan belong to the Palearctic fauna, although in the eastern and southeastern parts of the region there are representatives of the Oriental fauna characteristic of the Indian subcontinent.

  • INSTITUT PASTEUR

    Amir A. Afkhami

    the institute for bacteriology and vaccination founded by the Persian government in 1921 as a branch of Institut Pasteur of Paris. The idea of establishing an institute for microbiological research and immunology in Iran was conceived in the aftermath of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic in Persia which killed hundreds of thousands of the country’s approximately ten million population.

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  • INSTITUTE FOR IRANIAN PHILOLOGY

    Claus V. Pedersen

    (INSTITUT FOR IRANSK FILOLOGI), University of Copenhagen. i. Forerunners. ii. History. Although the Institute was founded only in 1961, it has a long prehistory, since it is the natural culmination of about 200 years of Iranian studies in the Kingdom of Denmark.

  • INSTITUTE OF ISMAILI STUDIES

    Paul E. Walker

    founded in 1977 by H. H. Prince Karim Aga Khan, a gathering point for the Ismaili community’s interest in its own history and in its relationship with the larger world of Islamic scholarship and contemporary thought.