Table of Contents

  • HORSESHOES

    Wolfram Kleiss

    (naʿl), iron protectors for the hooves of pack animals and mounts. In Persia, as in southern Europe, both horses and donkeys are shod.

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  • HORUFISM

    Hamid Algar

    a body of antinomian and incarnationist doctrines evolved by Fażl-Allāh Astarābādi (d. 1394), known to his followers also as Fażl-e Yazdān (“the generosity of God”). Its principal features were elaborate numerological interpretations of the letters of the Perso-Arabic alphabet and an attempt to correlate them with the human form.

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  • ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ʿALI BEDLISI

    Tahsin Yazici

    NURBAḴŠI, Kurdish Sufi author of a commentary on the Koran, among other works (d. 1494-95).

  • ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ČALABI

    Mohammad Estelami

    , ḤASAN B. MOḤAMMAD b. Ḥasan, Ebn Aḵi Tork (d. 1284), leading disciple and first successor of Jalāl-al-Din Rumi.

  • HŌŠANG

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    called Pēšdād, an early hero-king in Iranian tradition, father of the Iranians and founder of the Pēšdādian dynasty.

  • HŌŠANG JĀMĀSP

    Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal

    a distinguished Parsi scholar-priest (1833-1908).

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA

    cross-reference

    See JALĀYERIDS.

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI

    Multiple Authors

    Hosayn b. Ali is the second surviving grandson of the Prophet Moḥammad through his daughter Fāṭema and the third Imam of the Shiʿites after his father and his elder brother Ḥasan.

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI i. LIFE AND SIGNIFICANCE IN SHIʿISM

    Wilferd Madelung

    In contrast to the pacifist and conciliatory character of his elder brother, Ḥosayn inherited his father’s fighting spirit and intense family pride, although he did not acquire his military prowess and experience.

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI ii. IN POPULAR SHIʿISM

    Jean Calmard

    Legendary accounts about Ḥosayn and his martyrdom were from the outset influenced by his status as a Shiʿite Imam.