Table of Contents

  • HUZWĀREŠ

    D. Durkin-Meisterernst

    a term describing the use of Semitic word masks in Middle Persian texts, written in the official orthography of the Sasanian state and surviving in Zoroastrian texts, and a small number of inscriptions, and letters.

  • HVARCIERA

    cross-reference

    See XWARČIHR.

  • HYDARNES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. Hydárnēs), rendering of the Old Persian male name Vidṛna held by several historical persons of the Achaemenid period.

  • HYDE, THOMAS

    A. V. Williams

    , D.D., English orientalist, Professor of Arabic and Hebrew in the University of Oxford, the first scholar to attempt to write a comprehensive description of the religion of Zoroaster (1636-1703).

  • HYDERABAD

    Gavin Hambly, Deborah Hutton

    (Ḥaydarābād), city in the Deccan of India, the former capital of the Nizams (Neẓāms) of Hyderabad (ca. 1724-1948) and at present the state capital of Andhra Pradesh in southern India. It had a three and a half century history as one of the major Muslim states and as a center of Indo-Persian culture in the subcontinent.

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  • HYDROLOGY

    Multiple Authors

    i. Iranian plateau. ĀB. ii. Southwestern Persia. iii. Afghanistan. From a hydrological perspective, southwestern Persia must be considered as part of the Persian Gulf drainage region. Extending over an area of more than 350,000 km², its main drainage area covers the central and southwestern Zagros mountain areas with their extremely complex geomorphology.

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  • HYENA

    Steven C. Anderson

    Hyaena hyaena (Linnaeus, 1758), Pers. kaftār. The striped hyena is the only current Asian representative of the mammalian family Hyaenidae. Principal threats to hyena populations today are vehicular traffic (since they scavenge road kills at night), wanton shooting, and secondary poisoning. The hyena is a protected species in Iran.

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  • HYGIENE

    Cross-Reference

    See HEALTH IN PERSIA.

  • HYMN OF THE PEARL

    J. R. Russell

    or Hymn of the Soul, a Syriac poem, of which an early Greek translation also exists, composed probably in the third century CE in the region of Edessa.

  • HYPERBOLE

    N. Chalisova

    a figure (or figures) of speech in the classical Persian system of ʿelm al-badiʿ.

  • HYRCANIA

    cross-reference

    See GORGĀN ii.

  • HYSTASPES

    Cross Reference

    father of Darius I. See GOŠTĀSP.

  • HYSTASPES, ORACLES OF

    Werner Sundermann

    (Gk. Khrēseis Hystaspou), a collection of prophecies ascribed to Vištāspa, the patron and follower of Zarathustra.

  • H~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter H entries.