Table of Contents

  • HORMUZ i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    D. T. Potts

    island and a strategic strait (Tanga-ye Hormoz) in the Persian Gulf, linking it to the Gulf of Oman, as well as the name of a medieval port near the strait.

  • HORMUZ ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Willem Floor

    Hormuz fell to the Arabs in 650-51. In the 10th century, the town of Hormuz was the chief port for Kermān and Sistān, although the main Persian Gulf port was Jannāba. It was known for its cultivation of a variety of millet (ḏorra), indigo, cumin, and sugarcane, while it allegedly supplied all of Persia with dates. Irrigation was by subterranean channels (qanāt).

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  • HORN, PAUL

    Erich Kettenhofen

    German philologist and specialist in Iranian and Turkish languages (1863-1908).

  • ḤORR-E ʿĀMELI

    Meir M. Bar Asher

    (1624-1693), one of the outstanding Twelver Shiʿite Hadith scholars of the Aḵbāri school and a prolific author.

  • ḤORR-E RIĀḤI

    Jean Calmard

    a leading tribesman in Kufa, who intercepted Ḥosayn b. ʿAli and his party and led them to Karbalā, but later repented and fought and died (10 October 680) there on Ḥosayn’s side.

  • HORSE

    cross-reference

    See ASB.

  • HORSE RACING

    Azartash Azarnoush

    The history of horse racing in Iran can be traced back to the Achaemenid period. Xenophon refers to a race set up by Cyrus II.

  • HORSESHOES

    Wolfram Kleiss

    (naʿl), iron protectors for the hooves of pack animals and mounts. In Persia, as in southern Europe, both horses and donkeys are shod.

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  • HORUFISM

    Hamid Algar

    a body of antinomian and incarnationist doctrines evolved by Fażl-Allāh Astarābādi (d. 1394), known to his followers also as Fażl-e Yazdān (“the generosity of God”). Its principal features were elaborate numerological interpretations of the letters of the Perso-Arabic alphabet and an attempt to correlate them with the human form.

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  • ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ʿALI BEDLISI

    Tahsin Yazici

    NURBAḴŠI, Kurdish Sufi author of a commentary on the Koran, among other works (d. 1494-95).