Table of Contents

  • HA-GE’ULLAH

    Amnon Netzer

    Judeo-Persian weekly newspaper published in Tehran between 1920 and 1923.

  • HAAS, WILLIAM S.

    Hossein Kamaly

    (1883-1956), German-born Iranist, advisor to the Iranian ministry of education and a pioneer of Iranian studies in the United States. 

  • ḤABAQUQ, TOMB OF

    S. Soroudi

    This brick monument, the overall shape of which is comparable with the tomb of Amir Timur in Samarqand, consists essentially of an octagonal tower topped by a conical roof. Each of the eight sides of the roughly 7 meter high tower is embellished with the design of an inset arch.

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  • ḤABIB AL-ESLĀM

    Nasser-al-Din Parvin

    Persian-language weekly newspaper published in Kabul, 1929 replacing Amān-e afḡān at the time of Bačča-ye Saqqā.

  • ḤABIB EṢFAHĀNI

    Tahsin Yazıcı

    , MIRZĀ, Iranian poet, grammarian, and translator (1835-93), who spent much of his life in exile in Ottoman Turkey. He is noted for his Persian grammar, Dastur-e Soḵan (Istanbul, 1872), which is regarded as the first systematic grammar of the Persian language and served as a model for many later works.

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  • ḤABIB-ALLĀH

    Ludwig W. Adamec

    , Amir, monarch who initiated modernization in Afghanistan (b. 1872, d. 1919).

  • ḤABIB-ALLĀH ḴORĀSĀNI

    Jalal Matini

    , Hājj Mirzā, an enlightened religious scholar of Mašhad and a poet (1850-1909).

  • ḤABIB-ALLĀH SĀVAJI

    Barbara Schmitz

    (1587-1628), one of the more conservative artists active during the reign of Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1587-1628). All we know about him, besides his paintings, is the brief note by his contemporary Qāżi Aḥmad, who, writing in 1596, referred to him as a masterful artist distinguished among his peers.

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  • ḤABIBĀBĀDI, MOʿALLEM

    Cross-Reference

    See MOʿALLEM ḤABIBĀBĀDI.

  • ḤABIBIYA SCHOOL

    Ludwig W. Adamec

    an elite high school for boys established in 1903 in Kabul and named after its founder, Amir Ḥabib-Allāh.

  • ḤABL AL-MATIN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (lit. strong cord), name of three newspapers published in Calcutta, Tehran, and Rašt.

  • ḤABLARUD

    M. H. Ganji

    river in Damāvand and Garmsār districts of Semnān province in northern Persia.

  • ḤADĀʾEQ AL-SEḤR

    N. Y. Chalisova

    shortened title of the famous treatise Ḥadāʾeq al-seḥr fi daqāʾeq al-šeʿr (“Gardens of magic in the subtleties of poetry”) by Rašid(-e) Waṭwāt (d. 1182-83).

  • HADAF EDUCATIONAL GROUP

    Aḥmad Birašk

    (Goruh-e Farhangi-e Hadaf), a pioneering private educational complex founded in Tehran in 1949-50.

  • HĀDI ḤASAN

    K. A. Jaisi

    Indian scholar of Persian literature (1894-1963).

  • HĀDI SABZAVĀRI

    Seyyed Hossein Nasr

    , Shaikh Mollā (1797-1873), the most famous Islamic philosopher of the Qajar period, as well as an outstanding theologian and a notable poet.

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  • ḤADIQAT AL-ḤAQIQA WA ŠARIʿAT AL-ṬARIQA

    J.T.P. de Bruijn

    a Persian didactical maṯnawi by the twelfth-century poet Ḥakim Majdud b. Ādam Sanāʾi.

  • HADIŠ (1)

    cross-reference

    See PALACE i. ACHAEMENID.

  • HADIŠ (2)

    Mary Boyce

    the Avestan name of a minor Zoroastrian divinity, glossed in Pahlavi (tr. of Visprad 1:9) by mēnōg ī xānag “Spirit of the house.”

  • HADITH

    Shahab Ahmed, A. Kazemi-Moussavi, Ismail K. Poonawala, Hamid Algar, Shaul Shaked

    term denoting reports that convey the normative words and deeds of the Prophet Moḥammad; it is understood to refer generically to the entire corpus of this literature and to the thousands of individual reports that comprise it.

  • HADITH i. A General Introduction

    Shahab Ahmed

    Hadith literature is understood to be the repository of the sonna (normative conduct) of the Prophet, which is regarded as second in authority only to the Koran as a source of Divine truth.

  • HADITH ii. IN SHIʿISM

    A. Kazemi-Moussavi

    The Twelver Shiʿite conception of Hadith is generally in line with that of the Sunnites as discussed in Section i. However, Hadith about the Imams are authoritative as well.

  • HADITH iii. IN ISMAʿILISM

    Ismail K. Poonawala

    Ismaʿilis had neither a Hadith collection of their own nor a distinct Ismaʿili law before the establishment of the Fatimid dynasty in North Africa in 297/909.

  • HADITH iv. IN SUFISM

    Hamid Algar

    In keeping with all other categories of Islamic literature, the writings of the Sufis are replete with not only Koranic citations but also quotations of Hadith.

  • HADITH v. AS INFLUENCED BY IRANIAN IDEAS AND PRACTICES

    Shaul Shaked

    The contact of Arabia with ancient Iran started even before Islam, and there are definite traces of the presence of Iranian religious notions in the Koran.

  • HĀDŌXT NASK

    Jean Kellens

    (Book of scriptures), the sixth of the seven Gaθic (Gāsānīg) nasks of the Sasanian Avesta, according to the Dēnkard (8.45.1).

  • HADRIAN

    Ernst Badian

    (Publius Aelius Hadrianus), Roman emperor 117-38. He abandoned the Parthian War and the provinces east of the Euphrates that had been instituted by Trajan but never securely held.

  • ḤĀʾERI, ʿABD-AL-KARIM YAZDI

    Hamid Algar

    , Shaikh (1859-1937), an influential “source of emulation” (marjaʿ-e taqlid) as well as founder of the institution of religious teaching and guidance (Ḥawza-ye ʿelmiya) in Qom. His literary legacy was relatively meager, the result of his preoccupation with administering the Ḥawza and teaching.

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  • HAFEZ

    Multiple Authors

    Celebrated Persian lyric poet (ca. 715-792/1315-1390).

  • HAFEZ i. AN OVERVIEW

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Hafez is the most popular of Persian poets. Many of his lines have become proverbial sayings, and there are few who cannot recite some of his lyrics.

  • HAFEZ ii. HAFEZ’S LIFE AND TIMES

    Bahaʾ-al-Din Khorramshahi and EIr

    In spite of this enormous popularity and influence, details of his life are extremely sketchy, and the brief references in taḏkeras (anthologies with biographical sketches) are often unreliable or even purely fictitious.

  • HAFEZ iii. HAFEZ’S POETIC ART

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    Perhaps the greatest progress in research on Hafez during the past century has been made in the domain of philology. Critical editions have been published which begin to provide a reliable basis for the study of Hafez’s poetry.

  • HAFEZ iv. LEXICAL STRUCTURE OF HAFEZ’S GHAZALS

    D. Meneghini Correale

    Despite limitations, it is nevertheless necessary to base textual criticism on complete and reliable lexico-statistical inventories of Hafez’s ghazals.

  • HAFEZ v. MANUSCRIPTS OF HAFEZ

    Julie Scott Meisami

    A major concern of 20th-century Hafez scholarship has been the establishment of a reliable text of his poems.

  • HAFEZ vi. PRINTED EDITIONS OF THE DIVĀN OF HAFEZ

    Bahaʾ-al-Din Khorramshahi and EIr

    Printed editions of Hafez’s poems include partial and complete collections, non-critical and critical editions, in lithographic, calligraphic, facsimile, and typeset formats. The earliest printed editions appeared outside of Persia. The first printed edition was commissioned by Richard Johnson of the East India Company and published by Upjohn’s Calcutta press in 1791.

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  • HAFEZ viii. HAFEZ AND RENDI

    Franklin Lewis

    Rend, variously translated in English as “rake, ruffian, pious rogue, brigand, libertine, lout, debauchee,” is the very antithesis of establishment propriety.

  • HAFEZ ix. HAFEZ AND MUSIC

    Franklin Lewis

    The poetics of Hafez, perhaps more so than many Persian poets, depends on a sensuality of language and imagery. Smell, taste, texture, color and certainly sound imagery abound. Translations, adaptations, and inspirations from Hafez have repeatedly been set to music in songs/lieder of the Western classical music tradition. 

  • HAFEZ x. TRANSLATIONS OF HAFEZ IN ENGLISH

    Parvin Loloi

    The first poem by Hafez to appear in English was the work of Sir William Jones (1746-94).

  • HAFEZ xi. TRANSLATIONS OF HAFEZ IN GERMAN

    Hamid Tafazoli

    The name of Hafez is closely associated with that of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in German literature. This is directly attributable to the status Goethe accords Hafez in his West-West-östlicher Divan (1819).

  • HAFEZ xii. HAFEZ AND THE VISUAL ARTS

    Priscilla Soucek

    The 16th century constitutes the apex in production for illustrated copies of Hafez’s Divān; they were made in several places for a range of patrons. The largest group of the illustrated Hafez manuscripts was produced in Shiraz, the most impressive among them dating to the 1580s.

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  • HAFEZ xiii. - xiv. HAFEZ’S TOMB (ḤĀFEẒIYA)

    Kuros Kamali Sarvestani

    The Hafeziya is located south of the Koran Gate (Darvāza-ye Qorʾān) on the northern edge of Shiraz. It is on the site of the famous Golgašt-e Moṣallā, the pleasure ground often mentioned in the poems of Hafez and occupies about 19,000 square meters, incorporating one of Shiraz’s most famous cemeteries, Ḵāk-e Moṣallā.

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  • ḤĀFEẒ EṢFAHĀNI

    Parviz Mohebbi

    , Mawlānā Moḥammad, known as Moḵtareʿ (inventor), 15th-16th century engineer, summoned by the Timurid court of Sultan Ḥosayn Bāyqarā to construct a clock after a European model.

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  • ḤĀFEẒ-E ABRU

    Maria Eva Subtelny and Charles Melville

    (d. 1430), author of many historical and historico-geographical works in Persian, which were commissioned by Šāhroḵ, the Timurid ruler of Herat during the first decades of the 15th century.

  • ḤĀFEẒ-E ʿAJAM

    Tahsin Yazıcı

    , HĀFEẒ-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD, scholar of religion and author, renowned for his ability to write with speed and in an attractive style.

  • HAFT

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    (seven), the heptad and its cultural significance in Persian history. The number has been explained as the symbolic expression of a distinct culture.

  • HAFT AMAHRASPAND YAŠT

    Antonio Panaino

    or simply Haf-tān yašt, the second hymn of the Avestan corpus. It is dedicated to the seven Zoroastrian entities and recited on the first seven days of the month.

  • HAFT EQLIM

    Cross-Reference

    See HAFT KEŠVAR.

  • HAFT KEŠVAR

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    (seven regions), the usual geographical division of the world in Iranian tradition. Ancient Iranians  envisioned the world as vast and round and encircled by a high mountain (harā bərəzaitī: see ALBORZ). According to this tradition, the world was divided into seven (circular) regions.

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  • HAFT ḴOSRAVĀNI

    Ameneh Youssefzadeh

    the seven musical systems or modes attributed to Bārbad, the famous court musician of the Sasanian king Ḵosrow II Parvēz (r. 590-628).

  • HAFT ḴᵛĀN

    Olga M. Davidson

    the title of two famous episodes in Ferdowsi’s Šāh-nāma, the Haft Ḵᵛān-e Rostam, and the Haft Ḵᵛān-e Esfandiār, describing seven exploits that each hero had to undertake.

  • HAFT LANG

    Cross-Reference

    See BAḴTIĀRI TRIBE.

  • HAFT OWRANG

    cross-reference

    See JĀMI.

  • HAFT PEYKAR

    François de Blois

    a famous romantic epic by Neẓāmi Ganjavi from the last decade of the 6th/12th century. The title can be translated literally as “seven portraits,” but also with the figurative meaning of “seven beauties.”

  • HAFT QOLZOM

    Ṣafurā Hušyār

    (lit., The seven seas), the title of a Persian dictionary compiled in India in 1813-18 by Abu’l-Moẓaffar Ḡāzi-al-Din Ḥaydar (d. 1827).

  • HAFT SIN

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    denoting “seven items beginning with the letter sin (S),”  one of the components of the rituals of the New Year’s Day festival (see NOWRUZ) observed by most Iranians. The items are traditionally displayed on the dining cloth (sofra) that every household spreads out on the floor (or on a table) in a room normally reserved for entertaining guests.

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  • HAFT TEPE

    Ezat O. Negahban

    In the 1950s and 1960s, Haft Tepe became part of a large sugar cane plantation. In the course of leveling the land for planting, some of the archaeological remains were destroyed and others exposed. During the construction of the main road to the plantation, a baked brick wall was uncovered and the discovery reported to the Iranian Archaeological Service.

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  • HAFTA

    Badri Gharib

    (“week”), history of the calendar week in Iran.

  • HAFTĀNBŌXT

    Mansour Shaki

    traditional reading of the name of a legendary warlord in southern Persia, mentioned in the Kār-nāmag ī Ardašīr ī Pābagān (The exploits of Ardašīr son of Pābag).

  • HAFTAVĀN TEPE

    Charles Burney

    one of the three largest settlement mounds in the Urmia basin, Azerbaijan, covering fifty acres and not far from the village of Haftavān, itself barely two miles from the district town of Salmās.

  • HAFTŌRANG

    Antonio Panaino

    the circumpolar constellation Ursa Major (UMa),  known in Young Avestan literature under the appellative of haptōiriṇga- (only pl. with star- “star”).

  • HAFTVĀD

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    (Haftwād), the hero of a legend associated with the rise of the Sasanian Ardašir I (r. 224-39). The Šāh-nāma gives his “strange story” (dāstān-e šegeft).

  • HAGIOGRAPHIC LITERATURE

    Jürgen Paul

    in Persia and Central Asia. Hagiographic literature may be defined broadly as a biographical genre devoted to individuals enjoying an exclusive religious status as “saints” or “holy men” in the eyes of the authors.

  • HAGMATĀNA

    Cross-Reference

    See HAMADĀN.

  • HAIFA

    Hossein Amanat

    a port city in northwestern Israel and the site of a number of significant Bahai holy places, administrative buildings, and historical monuments. Bahais consider it their most sacred location after the shrine of Mirzā Ḥosayn-ʿAli Nuri Bahāʾ-Allāh, the prophet of the Bahai faith, situated across the bay in nearby ʿAkkā.

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  • HAIKU

    Eva Lucie Witte

    a Japanese poetic form adopted and employed by Iranian poets since the second half of the 20th century.

  • ḤAIM, MOREH ḤAḴĀM

    Amnon Netzer

    eminent Jewish scholar (b. Tehran, 1872; d. Tehran, 1942).

  • ḤAIM, ŠEMUʾEL

    Amnon Netzer

    generally known as Monsieur Ḥaim or Mister Ḥaim, journalist and Majles deputy (b. Kermānšāh, 1891; executed Tehran, Dec. 15, 1931).

  • ḤAIM, SOLAYMĀN

    Amnon Netzer

    twentieth-century lexicographer, became known as one of the first serious lexicographers to prepare Persian-language dictionaries into and from English, French and Hebrew (1886-1970).

  • HAJAR

    Cross-Reference

    See BAHRAIN.

  • HAJĀR

    cross-reference

    See ŠARAFKANDI, ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN.

  • ḤĀJEB

    C. Edmund Bosworth, Rudi Matthee

    administrative and then military office in the pre-modern Iranian world.

  • ḤĀJEB i. IN THE MEDIEVAL ISLAMIC PERIOD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    The office of ḥājeb, implying military command, appears in the Iranian world with the Samanids, where it probably grew out of the amir’s domestic household.

  • ḤĀJEB ii. IN THE SAFAVID AND QAJAR PERIODS

    Rudi Matthee

    In the Safavid period the ḥājeb, the major domo or master of ceremony, was called the išik-āqāsi-bāši, literally “head of the masters of the threshold.”

  • ḤĀJI ʿALILU

    Pierre Oberling

    a Turkic tribe of Persian Azerbaijan. Its main branch lives north of Varzaqān and Ahar, in Qarājadāḡ (Arasbārān); another branch dwells in the vicinity of Marāḡa.

  • ḤĀJI ĀQĀ

    F. Farzaneh

    a satirical novella by Ṣādeq Hedāyat, published in the journal Soḵan in 1945, followed by a second edition in 1952.

  • ḤĀJI BĀBĀ

    Nasseredin Parvin

    a satirical and politically critical newspaper, published in Tehran, 1949-53.

  • ḤĀJI BĀBĀ AFŠĀR

    Anna Vanzan

    son of an officer in the army of the Crown Prince ʿAbbās Mirzā and one of the first Persian students sent to study in Europe (1811).

  • ḤĀJI BĀBĀ OF EṢFAHĀN

    cross-reference

    See HAJJI BABA OF ISPAHAN.

  • ḤĀJI FIRUZ

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    the most famous among the traditional folk entertainers, who appears in the Persian streets in the days preceding Nowruz. The Ḥāji Firuz entertains passers-by by singing traditional songs and dancing and playing his tambourine for a few coins. He rarely knocks on a door, but begins his performance as soon as the door is opened.

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  • ḤĀJI MIRZĀ ĀQĀSI

    Cross-Reference

    grand vizier of Moḥammad Shah Qāǰār (r. 1250-64/1834-48) between 1251-64/1835-48. See ĀQĀSI, ḤĀJI MIRZĀ.

  • ḤĀJI PIĀDA

    cross-reference

    Mosque of. See ISFAHAN x, MONUMENTS.

  • ḤĀJI PIRZĀDA

    Anna Vanzan

    , Moḥammad ʿAli Nāʾini, Persian traveler (d. 1904). His diary follows the convention of the Qajar safar-nāmas in its description of the wonders seen abroad (such as  monuments, museums, transportation systems). A pious and traditional man, he expresses a sincere apprehension for those Iranians abroad whom he felt had forgotten their culture and religion.

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  • ḤĀJI VĀŠANGTON

    Hossein Kamaly

    In his dispatches to Persia Ḥāji Vāšangton presented information about the American political system and society. He openly admired the Americans’ disdain for Europeans and regarded Americans as “alert, intelligent, learned, polite, and wealthy.” He stressed that all government dignitaries were “servants of the people,” an observation that undermined the interests of Qajar courtiers like Eʿtemād-al-Salṭana.

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  • HAJIABAD

    Philippe Gignoux, EIr

    (Ḥājiābād), site of bilingual inscription of Šāpur I on the wall of a cave near Persepolis. OVERVIEW of the entry: i. The Inscriptions. ii. The Texts.

  • HAJIABAD i. INSCRIPTIONS

    Philippe Gignoux

    The Hajiabad inscriptions in Parthian and Middle Persian were discovered in 1818 in a grotto a few kilometers north of Persepolis. This text describes a feat of archery by King Šāpūr I. In the presence of kings and princes, of the grandees and the nobles, the king of kings had shot an arrow beyond a cairn which was not visible and yet constituted the target.

  • HAJIABAD ii. THE TEXTS

    EIr

    “This (is) the bowshot of me, the Mazda-worshipping god Shapur, king of kings of Eran and Non-Eran ..."

  • ḤĀJIĀNI

    Bruno Nettl

    a guša or subdivision of a mode in the canonic repertory (radif) of Persian classical music.

  • HAJJ

    cross-reference

    See PILGRIMAGE, forthcoming online.

  • ḤĀJJ SAYYĀḤ

    Ali Ferdowsi

    , Mirzā Moḥammad ʿAli Maḥallāti (ca. 1836-1925), constitutionalist and human rights activist, the first modern Persian to tour the world and the first to become a naturalized U.S. citizen. He was among the first Persians to  actively pursued democratic political reforms in Persia, and he wrote the first modernist Persian book of travels and the first modern prison notebook in Persia.

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  • HAJJI BABA OF ISPAHAN

    Abbas Amanat

    hero of The Adventures of Hajji Baba of Ispahan by James Justinian Morier (3 vols., London, 1824), the most popular Oriental novel in the English language and a highly influential stereotype of the so-called “Persian national character” in modern times. 

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  • HAJW

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    and its synonym hejā, two of the many terms which denote types of humorous writing or light verse in Persian.

  • ḤAKAMI

    Mohammad-Mahdi Khalaji

    , Mirzā ʿALI-AKBAR (ca.1848-1925-6), philosopher and theosopher, known in his lifetime as Ḥakim but later referred to as Ḥakami.

  • ḤĀKEM

    cross-reference

    See ADMINISTRATION.

  • ḤĀKEM BE-AMR-ALLĀH

    Farhad Daftary

    , ABU ʿALI MANṢUR, the sixth Fatimid caliph and sixteenth Ismaʿili Imam (r. 996-1021), arguably the most controversial member of the Fatimid dynasty.

  • ḤAKIM ʿALAWI KHAN

    Farid Ghassemlou

    an Iranian physician and author in the service of the Mughal Emperor Moḥammad Shah as his chief physician with the title of Moʾtamen-al-Moluk.  

  • ḤAKIM ATĀ

    Devin DeWeese

    a Central Asian Sufi; he is usually named as a direct disciple of Aḥmad Yasavi, and would therefore have lived in the early 13th century.

  • ḤAKIM TERMEḎI

    Bernd Radtke

    , ABU ʿABD-ALLĀH MOḤAMMAD b. ʿAli, a prolific mystic author, many of whose writings have survived (b. 820-830, d. 907-12).

  • ḤAKIMI, EBRĀHIM

    Abbas Milani and EIr

    Ḥakimi was born into an old and prominent family of court physicians. The family had been court physicians since the 17th century, starting with the eponym of the family, Moḥammad-Dāwud Khan Ḥakim, a physician at the courts of the Safavid Shah Ṣafi and Shah ʿAbbās II and the founder of the Ḥakim Mosque in Isfahan.

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  • ḤAKIMOVA, MAWJUDA

    Evelin Grassi

    (1932-1993), Soviet Tajik poetess, editor, and dramatist. Her poetry consists mainly of lyric miniatures on the theme of love and all manifestations of the natural world, from the Pamir mountains to the simplest flower plucked in a park in the suburbs of Dushanbe. Her plays reflect the move from the Soviet political propaganda and public life toward the Tajik private and personal sphere.

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  • ḤĀL

    Jean During

    (lit. condition, state), an essential notion in Persian arts, especially music, which is supposed to bring about a meditative state.

  • ḤALABI, ABU'L-ṢĀLEḤ

    Etan Kohlberg

    Taqi-al-Din b. Najm-al-Din b. ʿObayd-Allāh b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. Moḥammad (b. 984-85, d. 1055), Imami jurist and theologian.

  • ḤALABI, MAḤMUD

    Mahmoud Sadri

    , Shaikh (1900-1998), charismatic cleric and founder of the Ḥojjatiya Association (Anjoman-e Ḥojjatiya), whose primary objective was to meet the polemical challenge of the Bahai faith and the perceived danger of its aggressive missionary activity in Persia. It was terminated after the Islamic revolution of 1979

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  • ḤALĀL O ḤARĀM

    Dana al-Sajdi

    a pair of Islamic legal terms: ḥalāl meaning permissible, and ḥarām meaning prohibited. Both terms occur in the Koran numerous times.

  • ḤĀLAT, ABU’L-QĀSEM

    Hušang Etteḥād

    Ḥālat is considered by some observers to be the greatest contemporary Persian satirical poet. His enormous success and mastery of satirical prose and, especially, poetry have sometimes earned him the titles of Malek-al-šoʿarāʾ, Sayyed-al-šoʿarāʾ, and Amir-al-šoʿarā.

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  • ḤĀLI, ALṬĀF ḤOSAYN

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • HALICARNASSUS

    Bruno Genito

    ancient town of Caria, near the present-day city of Bodrum in Turkey, once seat of a kingdom which was a tributary of Persia.

  • HALIL RUD

    M. H. Ganji

    river in the Jiroft and Kahnuj districts of Kerman Province in southeastern Iran, which stretches a total length of 390 km.

  • ḤALIM

    Etrat Elahi

    a traditional Persian breakfast dish for the winter, now served at lunch and dinner as well, made with lamb and wheat.

  • ḤALIMI, LOṬF-ALLĀH

    Tahsin Yazici

    b. Abi Yusof, an Ottoman poet and lexicographer of Persian origin (d. 1516).

  • ḤALLĀJ, ABU’L-MOḠIṮ ḤOSAYN

    Jawid Mojaddedi

    b. Manṣur b. Maḥammā Bayżāwi (857-922), popularly referred to in Persian literature as “Manṣur-e Ḥallāj,” controversial Arabic-speaking mystic from Fārs, whose execution has been considered a major turning-point in the history of Islamic mysticism.

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  • HALLOCK, RICHARD TREADWELL

    Charles E. Jones and Matthew W. Stolper

    (1906-1980), Elamitologist and Assyriologist, whose magnum opus, Persepolis Fortification Tablets, transformed the study of the languages and history of Achaemenid Persia.

  • ḤALWĀ

    Etrat Elahi

    (Ar. ḥalwāʾ, Pers. ḥalwā “sweetmeat”), a generic term applied to various kinds of sweet dishes and fruits.

  • HĄM.VAINTĪ

    Bernfried Schlerath

    Zoroastrian divinity “Victory,” only attested as a companion with Āxšti “Peace.”

  • HAMADĀN

    Multiple Authors

    province, governorship, and city located in the Zagros region of western Persia.

  • HAMADĀN i. GEOGRAPHY

    Parviz Aḏkāʾi and EIr

    Hamadān is one of the western provinces of Persia, situated to the southwest of Tehran between latitudes 33°59′ and 35°48′ N and longitudes 47°34′ and 49°36′ E. The city of Hamadān is located at an altitude of 1,645 m on the eastern slope of the Alvand massif. In the National Physical Plan (Ṭarḥ-e kālbodi-e melli), which divides the country into 10 regions, the province is identified as a part of the central Zagros sub-region.

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  • HAMADĀN ii. POPULATION

    Habibollah Zanjani

    A part of the population of Hamadān consists of migrating tribes. According to the census definition most parts of these tribes are considered as rural population and only a small part as non-sedentary. Nevertheless, census data provide some information concerning their number, tribal name and other social characteristics.

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  • HAMADĀN iii. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY

    Xavier de Planhol

    The city of Hamadān lies at the extreme northwest of the series of major urban sites stretching along the line of contact between the Zagros range and the central plateau.

  • HAMADĀN iv. URBAN PLAN

    Abdolhamid Eshragh

    Hamadān is the only city in Persia which has a star-shaped urban design, with six boulevards and a network of avenues autonomously branching out in various directions from the circular city center. In 1928, German architects were given the task of designing a plan for the city which would modernize its urban infrastructure and be suitable for motor traffic. The resultant project was eventually implemented in 1933.

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  • HAMADĀN v - vi. HISTORY, ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Parviz Aḏkāʾi

    Hamadān did not give up resisting Arab rule even after the decisive defeat at Vājrud. Once Noʿaym left for the conquest of Ray and Khorasan following his victory at Vājrud, Moḡira b. Šoʿba, who had replaced ʿAmmār b. Yāser as governor of Kufa, sent Jarir b. ʿAbd-Allāh Bajali to Hamadān.

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  • HAMADĀN vii. MONUMENTS

    Ali Mousavi and EIr

    The city of Hamadān, besides its pre-Islamic remains, comprises some important monuments belonging to the Islamic period. The most significant of these is the mausoleum called Gonbad-e ʿAlawiān. It is a square, relatively massive monument, almost entirely of baked brick. Its façade was once covered with opulent stucco decoration.

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  • HAMADĀN viii. JEWISH COMMUNITY

    Houman Sarshar

    The relative religious freedom that existed in Persia at Yudḡān’s time had widespread effects on the Jewish communities throughout the land, but in Hamadān in particular. It was during this same period that religious authorities of the two Talmudic schools in Iraq were able to better influence the Jewish communities of Persia, opening yeshivas in Hamadān.

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  • HAMADĀN ix. JEWISH DIALECT

    Donald Stilo

    According to Ehsan Yarshater’s informants, the Jewish community had dwindled from around 13,000 souls in 1920 to less than 1,000 by 1969, and of these about half originated from the Jewish communities of Malāyer, Tuyserkān, and various points in Kurdistan. The Jewish population lived mostly in the Darb-e Kalim-ḵāna quarter of Hamadān.

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  • HAMADĀNI, ABU YAʿQUB YUSOF

    cross-reference

    See ABU YAʿQUB HAMADĀNI.

  • HAMADĀNI, BADIʿ-AL-ZAMĀN

    cross-reference

    See BADIʿ-AL-ZAMĀN HAMADĀNI.

  • HAMADĀNI, SAYYED ʿALI

    Parviz Aḏkāʾi

    b. Sayyed Šehāb-al-Din (1314-1384), Sufi author and preacher who undertook a celebrated mission to convert the people of Kashmir to Islam.

  • HAMADĀNIĀN FACTORIES AND ENDOWMENTS

    Habib Borjian

    Judging by the Ḥāji’s will, dated 1921, he left behind an enormous inheritance, allocating a third, the maximum amount allowed by the sharia, to an endowment for maintaining mosques, financing seminaries, feeding the poor, and especially funding rawża-ḵᵛānis and the feasts held during the holy month of Moḥarram.

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  • HAMAN

    Shaul Shaked

    the chief courtier of King Ahasuerus (Xerxes), according to the story of the Book of Esther in the Hebrew Bible. He is portrayed as the villain of the narrative.

  • HAMĀRAKARA

    Muhammad A.Dandamayev

    (*hmāra-kara-, lit. “account-maker”), “bookkeeper,” an Old Iranian title attested in various sources of Achaemenid and later times.

  • HAMASPATHMAĒDAYA

    cross-reference

    See GĀHANBĀR; FRAWARDIGĀN.

  • ḤAMĀVAND

    Pierre Oberling

    (from MOḤAMMADVAND), a Kurdish tribe of northeastern Iraq which has been described as “the most celebrated fighting tribe of southern Kurdistan.”

  • ḤAMAYD

    Pierre Oberling

    an Arab tribe of Ḵuzestān. In the early 1900s, it dwelled mostly in the boluk of Ḥamayd, on the left bank of the Kārun river.

  • HAMĀZŌR

    Mary Boyce and F. M. Kotwal

    a Zoroastrian Persian adjective “of the same strength” which occurs only in a formula of greeting, in ritual uses accompanied by the giving of hands.

  • ḤAMD-ALLĀH MOSTAWFI

    Charles Melville

    historian and geographer of the Il-khanid period (1281-1344), author of Tāriḵ-e gozida, Ẓafar-nāma, and Nozhat al-qolub.

  • ḤAMDĀN QARMAṬ

    Wilferd Madelung

    b. al-Ašʿaṯ (d. 933), Ismaʿili dāʿi and founder of the Ismaʿili movement in Iraq.

  • HAMDARD ISLAMICUS

    Ansar Zahid Khan

    English-language quarterly for Islamic Studies, founded in Pakistan in 1978. Published by the Hamdard Foundation of Pakistan.

  • ḤĀMED BAL-ḴEŻR AL-ḴOJANDI

    David Pingree

    , ABU MAḤMUD, mathematician and astronomer of the 10th century. His nesba suggests that he originated from Ḵojand in Ferḡāna.

  • ḤĀMEDI EṢFAHĀNI

    Tahsin Yazici

    (or Ḥāmedi ʿAjam), a poet of Persian origin (1439-ca. 1485) at the court of the Ottoman Sultan Moḥammad Fāteḥ (Mehmed the Conquerer).

  • HAMĒSTAGĀN

    Philippe Gignoux

    a word of uncertain etymology, used in Pahlavi literature to designate the intermediate stage between paradise and hell.

  • HAMGAR, MAJDE

    Dabiḥ-Allāh Safā

    , Majd-al-Din b. Aḥmad, known also as Ebn-e Hamgar (hamgar means “weaver”), an important poet of the 7th/13th century (1210-1287).

  • ḤAMID QALANDAR

    Khaliq Ahmad Nizami

    (d. 1366), author of Ḵayr al-majāles, the obiter dicta (malfuẓāt) of the Češti shaikh Naṣir-al-Din Maḥmud Čerāḡ-e Dehli, Ḥamid’s father,

  • ḤAMID-AL-DIN ABU BAKR BALḴI

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • ḤAMID-AL-DIN KERMĀNI

    Farhad Daftary

    , ABU’L-ḤASAN AḤMAD b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. Moḥammad (d. after 1020-21), a prominent Ismaʿili dāʿi and one of the most accomplished Ismaʿili theologians and philosophers of the Fatimid period.

  • ḤAMIDI ŠIRĀZI

    Jafar Moayyad Shirazi

    Ḥamidi left Shiraz for Tehran in 1934 and enrolled in the Teachers College of Tehran University, where he received a B.A. degree in Persian Literature in 1937, graduating at the top of his class. He returned to Shiraz as a high school teacher, and a year later he published his first collection of poems, Šoku-fahā “Blossoms.”

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  • HAMKALĀM

    Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal

    “of the same word, ” a Zoroastrian-Persian priestly technical term.

  • ḤAMMĀM-E WAKĪL

    Karāmat-Allāh Afsar

    (bathhouse of the Wakil), a historic monument in Shiraz built by Karim Khan Zand “the Wakil” (r. 1751-79) after 1776.

  • HAMMER-PURGSTALL, JOSEPH FREIHERR von

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    prolific Austrian orientalist, among whose many works is the first ever complete translation of the Divān of Ḥāfeẓ into a Western language (1774-1856).

  • HĀMUN, DARYĀČA-YE

    Eckart Ehlers, Gherardo Gnoli

    (or simply Hāmun), lit. “lake of the plain, lowland,” a lake covering the deepest part of the Sistān depression and the Sistān watershed.

  • HĀMUN, DARYĀČA-YE i. GEOGRAPHY

    Eckart Ehlers

    The Sistān basin is the easternmost endorheic basin in Persia, draining a watershed 350,000 km2.

  • HĀMUN, DARYĀČA-YE ii. IN LITERATURE AND MYTHOLOGY

    Gherardo Gnoli

    In the literature and mythology of ancient Persia, Lake Hāmun occupied, along with the Helmand Riiver, a position of particular importance, especially in Zoroastrian eschatology.

  • ḤAMZA -NĀMA

    William L. Hanaway, Jr., Frances W. Pritchett

    a popular prose romance transmitted orally and written down at a time unknown.

  • ḤAMZA B. ĀḎARAK

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    or Atrak or ʿAbd-Allāh Abu Ḵozayma (d. 828), Kharijite rebel in Sistān and Khorasan during early ʿAbbasid times.

  • HAMZA NİGARİ

    Tahsin Yazi

    (Ḥamza Negāri) Ḥāji Mir Ḥamza Efendi b. Mir Pāšā, Sufi and poet from Azerbaijan, who wrote in both Persian and Turkish (d. 1886).

  • ḤAMZA-NĀMA i. GENERAL

    William L. Hanaway, Jr.

    The hero of Ḥamza-nāma is Ḥamza b. ʿAbd-al-Moṭṭaleb, whose adventures are thought to be a conflation of stories from eastern Persia about Ḥamza b. ʿAbd-Allāh the Kharijite (d. 797-8).

  • ḤAMZA-NĀMA ii. In the Subcontinent

    Frances W. Pritchett

    The Indo-Persian romance tradition, extending from the medieval period to the early 20th century, produced prose works of considerable literary and cultural interest, chief among which were many versions of the Ḥamza romance.

  • HANAFITE MAḎHAB

    Merlin Swartz

    a school of Sunni jurisprudence named after Abu Ḥanifa Noʿmān b. Ṯābet (699-767), an early Kufan jurist and theologian of Persian descent.

  • HANBALITE MAḎHAB

    Merlin Swartz

    a school of Sunni law and theology named after Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal (d. 855) which was founded largely under his influence in Baghdad.

  • HANG-E AFRĀSIĀB

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    in the national epic, the cave in which Afrāsiāb, the fugitive king of Turān, spent his last days.

  • HĀNIBĀL, ʿALI

    Ali Boloukbashi

    (1891-1966), Russian-born Persian scholar and founder of the first journal of anthropology (majalla-ye mardom-šenāsi) in Persia.

  • HĀNSAVI

    S. H. Qasemi

    , Shaikh (b. 1184-5, d. i1260-61), mystic, poet, and author.

  • HANWAY, JONAS

    Ernest Tucker

    (1712-86), an English merchant who traveled to Persia and wrote an account of the trip which provides an eyewitness view of northern Iran during Nāder Shah’s last years.

  • ḤANẒALA BĀDḠISI

    François de Blois

    one of the earliest (possibly the earliest) Persian poets of whom we have any record.

  • HAOMA

    Dieter Taillieu, Mary Boyce

    Avestan name for a plant and its divinity.

  • HAOMA i. BOTANY

    Dieter Taillieu

    Haoma is the Avestan name for a plant and its divinity, Mid. Pers. hōm, Sogd. xwm, Pers. and other living Iranian languages hōm, hūm and related forms.

  • HAOMA ii. THE RITUALS

    Mary Boyce

    Haoma yields the essential ingredient for the parahaoma, the consecrated liquid prepared during the main act of worship, the Yasna, and its extensions, the Visperad and Vendidad.

  • ḤAQIQAT (1)

    Nasseredin Parvin

    (“truth”), title of six different Persian-language newspapers or periodicals, published at various times in Tehran, Rašt, Isfahan, Kabul, and Aarhus (Denmark).

  • ḤAQIQAT (2)

    Habib Borjian

    (“truth,” apparently a rendering of Russian Pravda),  the title of several newspapers in Tajik Persian.

  • HARĀ BƎRƎZAITĪ

    cross-reference

    See ALBORZ.

  • HARAHUVATIŠ

    cross-reference

    See ARACHOSIA; ROḴAJ.

  • HARAIVA

    cross-reference

    See HERAT i.

  • HARĀSP

    cross-reference

    See ZAV.

  • HARĀT

    cross-reference

    See HERĀT.

  • HARAXVATIŠ

    cross-reference

    See ARACHOSIA; ROḴAJ.

  • HARDINGE, ARTHUR

    Denis Wright

    , Sir, British diplomat (1859-1933). He worked assiduously and effectively to counter the influence of Russia and enhance that of Britain.

  • HARDINGE, CHARLES

    Denis Wright

    , Lord, First Baron Hardinge of Penshurst (1858-1944), British diplomat.

  • HAREM

    Multiple Authors

    (Ar. and Pers. ḥaram “sanctuary”), wives and other female associates in former aristocratic families and the secluded quarter of a house reserved for them.

  • HAREM i. IN ANCIENT IRAN

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    There is no evidence for the practice among the early Iranians of taking large numbers of wives or concubines and keeping them in secluded quarters.

  • HAREM ii. IN THE QAJAR PERIOD

    Anna Vanzan

    Women played an important role in the life of the Qajar monarchs. Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah and Nāṣer-al-Din Shah, in particular, kept a large harem.

  • ḪARḪAR

    Inna Medvedskaya

    a land and a city at the western border of Media. It was taken several times by the Assyrian kings Shalmanaser III (r. 860-825 BCE) and Adad-nerari III (r. 812-782).

  • HARI RUD

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • ḤARIRA

    Etrat Elahi

    a very light and diluted Persian dish made of fine wheat flour or wheat starch, or with rice flour or rice powder.

  • HARISA

    Etrat Elahi

    a cooked dish made from a mixture of grains, usually half-ground wheat and barley, and meat, usually lamb and more recently sometimes beef.

  • HARKARN DĀS KANBŌH

    S.H. Qasemi

    the first Hindu author of a Persian work, Eršād al-ṭālebin, commonly known as Enšāʾ-e Harkarn, a collection of documents and model letters.

  • HARKI

    Pierre Oberling

    (Herki), a Kurdish tribe of western Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, and northeastern Iraq.

  • HARP

    Bo Lawergren

    (čang), a string instrument which flourished in Persia in many forms from its introduction, about 3000 BCE, until the 17th century.

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  • HARPAGOS

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    a Median magnate and the trusted advisor of the last Median king Astyages, In 550 BCE, during the war between the Medes and Persians, Harpagosdefected to support Cyrus II.

  • ḤARRĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    an ancient town of Upper Mesopotamia, now located in the modern Turkish province of Diyarbakir approximately 40 km/25 miles south-southeast of Edessa, or Urfa.

  • HARRIMAN MISSION

    Fakhreddin Azimi

    The American diplomat W. Averell Harriman was sent to Tehran in July 1951 to mediate between Persia and Great Britain after Persian nationalization of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.

  • HARTNER, WILLY

    A. Panaino

    (1905-1981), professor of the History of Sciences specializing in astronomy,  author of many works devoted to Oriental studies, including ancient Persian calendar systems.

  • HĀRUN AL-MONAJJEM

    David Pingree

    (d. 987), astronomer, astrologer, and Hadith expert.

  • HĀRUN AL-RAŠID

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    , HĀRUN B. MOḤAMMAD B. ʿABD-ALLĀH (d. 809), the fifth caliph of the ʿAbbasid dynasty (r. 786-809), the third son of the caliph al-Mahdi.

  • HĀRUN B. ALTUNTAŠ

    C. E. Bosworth

    son of a Turkish slave commander of Maḥmud of Ghazna who served as governor in Kᵛārazm 1032-35, first for the Ghaznavids, and then as an independent ruler.

  • HĀRUN WELĀYAT

    cross-reference

    See ISFAHAN x. MONUMENTS.

  • HĀRUT and MĀRUT

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    two fallen angels who taught mankind magic in Babylon, mentioned once in the Koran. Their names derive from the Zoroastrian Ḵordād and Amurdād, two of the Aməša Spəntas.

  • HARZANI

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • ḪARZIANU

    I. N. Medvedskaya

    a city and a district in Media, mentioned in the Assyrian texts of the time of Sargon II (r. 722–705 BCE).

  • ḤASAB O NASAB

    Louise Marlow

    term used in Arabic and New Persian literature to express complementary aspects of the concept of nobility. 

  • ḤASAN II

    Farhad Daftary

    , ʿALĀ ḎEKREHE’L-SALĀM, Nezāri Ismaʿili Imam and the fourth ruler of Alamut (1162-66). The most important event of his brief reign was his declaration of the qiāma (the Resurrection).

  • ḤASAN B. ʿABD-AL-MOʾMEN

    Tahsin Yaziçi

    full name: ḤASAN B. ʿABD-AL-MOʾMEN, ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ḴOʾI, 13th-century scribe, poet, and lexicographer from Azerbaijan.

  • ḤASAN B. ʿABD-ALLĀH

    cross-reference

    B. AL-MARZOBĀN AL-SIRĀFI. See SIRĀFI, ABU SAʿID ḤASAN.

  • ḤASAN B. ʿALI AL-ʿASKARI

    cross-reference

    See ʿASKARI, ḤASAN B. ʿALI.

  • ḤASAN B. ʿALI AL-QOMMI

    David Pingree

    , ABU NAṢR, astrologer of the late 10th century.

  • ḤASAN B. ʿALI B. ABI ṬĀLEB

    Wilferd Madelung

    eldest surviving grandson of the Prophet Moḥammad through his daughter Fāṭema, and second Imam of the Šiʿa after his father ʿAli.

  • ḤASAN B. MOHAMMAD NIŠĀBURI

    cross-reference

    See NIŠĀBURI, ḤASAN B. MOḤAMMAD.

  • ḤASAN B. MUSĀ NOWBAḴTI

    cross-reference

    See NOWBAḴTI, ḤASAN B. MUSĀ.

  • ḤASAN B. NUḤ B. YUSOF

    Ismail K. Poonawala

    a Mostaʿli Ṭayyebi Ismaʿili savant and the author of Ketāb al-azhār, a chrestomathy of Ismaʿili literature (d. 1533).

  • ḤASAN B.TIMURTAŠ B. ČUBĀN KUČAK

    Cross-Reference

    See CHOBANIDS.

  • ḤASAN BAṢRI

    Christopher Melchert

    , ABU SAʿID B. ABI’L-ḤASAN YASĀR, an important early Muslim preacher, theologian, jurist, Koran-reciter, and ascetic (642-728).

  • ḤASAN BEG RUMLU

    Sh. Quinn

    (b. 1530-31), author of Aḥsan al-tawāriḵ and a cavalryman (qurči) of the Rumlu Turkman tribe of qezelbāš during the reign of Shah Ṭahmāsb Ṣafawi.

  • ḤASAN BOZORG B. ḤOSAYN

    cross-reference

    See JALAYERIDS.

  • ḤASAN GĀNGU

    M. Shokoohy

    , ʿALĀ ʿ-AL-DIN ḤASAN BAHMANŠĀH (r. 1347-57), a Khorasani adventurer at the court of Delhi.

  • ḤASAN KHAN QĀJĀR SĀRI AṢLĀN

    cross-reference

    See SĀRI ASÂLĀN.

  • ḤASAN ṢABBĀḤ

    Farhad Daftary

    prominent Ismaʿili dāʿi  and founder of the medieval Nezāri Ismaʿili state (b. 1050s, d. 1124).

  • ḤASAN ŠIRĀZI

    Hamid Algar

    , MIRZĀ MOḤAMMAD, often referred to as Mirzā-ye Širāzi, leading Shiʿite cleric chiefly renowned for the role he played in the celebrated Tobacco Boycott of 1892 (1814-1895).

  • ḤASAN-ʿALI BEG BESṬĀMI

    Ernest Tucker

    one of Nāder Shah’s closest associates, who held the title moʿayyer al-mamālek or “chief assayer” and played an important advisory role throughout Nāder’s reign.

  • ḤASAN-ʿALI MIRZĀ ŠOJĀʿ-AL-ṢALṬANA

    cross-reference

    See ŠOJĀʿ-AL-ṢALṬANA, ḤASAN-ʿALI MIRZĀ.

  • ḤASAN-E ḠAZNAVI

    Julie Scott Meisami

    , SAYYED EMĀM AŠRAF ḤASAN B. MOḤAMMAD ḤOSAYNI, poet chiefly associated with the court of the Ghaznavid ruler Bahrāmšāh (d. ca. 1161).

  • ḤASANI, ABU’L-ʿABBĀS AḤMAD B. EBRĀHIM

    Wilferd Madelung

    Zaydi scholar from Āmol in Ṭabarestān, who flourished in the first half of the 3rd/9th century and taught three Caspian Zaydi imams.

  • ḤASANLU TEPPE

    Robert H. Dyson, Jr

    archeological site in West Azerbaijan Province in northwest Persia, a short distance southwest of Lake Urmia (former Reżāʾiya). OVERVIEW of the entry: i. The site. ii. The golden bowl.

  • ḤASANLU TEPPE i. THE SITE

    Robert H. Dyson, Jr

    The Qadar River rises to the west in the Zagros on the Assyrian frontier near the ancient Urartian city of Musasir. Its eastern end drains into marshes north of the modern town of Mahābād, which lies northwest of the ancient country of Mannai.

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  • ḤASANLU TEPPE ii. THE GOLDEN BOWL

    Robert H. Dyson, Jr

    The “gold bowl of Ḥasanlu” was found in the debris of Burned Building I West on the Citadel Mound at Ḥasanlu in 1958. It had fallen into room 9 in the southeastern corner of the building.

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  • ḤASANVAND

    Pierre Oberling

    a Lor tribe of the Piškuh region in Lorestān. In the 1870s it numbered some 2,500 families distributed among 16 tiras.

  • ḤĀŠEM, RAḤIM

    Habib Borjian

    (1908,-1993), Tajik essayist, literary critic, and translator, who is considered to have been one of the founders of modern Tajik literature.

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  • HĀŠEMIDS

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀL-E HĀŠEM.

  • HASHISH

    Cross-Reference

    See BANG.

  • ḤASIBI, KĀẒEM

    Bagher Agheli and EIr

    (1906-1990), political figure and university professor. When the oil industry was nationalized in 1951, Ḥasibi, as Deputy Minister of Finance, became a member of the delegation charged with the eviction of the former oil company. He accompanied Dr. Moṣaddeq to the U.N. Security Council and also, as oil adviser, defended Persia at the Hague International Tribunal against the British complaint.

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  • HAŠT BEHEŠT (1)

    cross-reference

    See ISFAHAN x. MONUMENTS.

  • HAŠT BEHEŠT (2)

    Michele Bernardini

    (lit: “the Eight Heavens, the Eight paradises”), a cosmological concept used on several occasions as the title of literary works, or as the name of a particular architectural form in Persian, Turkish, and Indian contexts.

  • HAŠTPAR

    Marcel Bazin

    city in the western part of Gilān Province, center of the šahrestān (sub-provincial district) of Ṭāleš (or Tāleš).

  • HAŠTPĀY

    Antonio Panaino

    name of a game from the Sasanian era which has not been precisely identified.

  • HAŠTRUD

    Z. Sadrolashrafi

    a sub-province (šahrestān) in the south of Azerbaijan, situated between lat 36°45’ and 37°24’ N,  long 46°25’ and 47°24’ E, some 134 km from Tabriz and 101 km from Miāna Sub-province.

  • HAŠTRUDI, MOḤSEN

    A. Shadi Tahvildar-Zadeh and Fariborz Majidi

    Once back in Tehran, Mohsen Hastrudi was appointed assistant professor at the Faculty of Science of the Dānešsarā-ye ʿāli and became full professor in 1941. He was also appointed the Director of Tehran’s Department of Education, President of the University of Tabriz (1951), and the Dean of the Faculty of Science at the University of Tehran (1957).

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  • ḤĀTAMI, ʿALI

    Jamsheed Akrami

    (b. Tehran, 1944; d. Tehran, 1996), Iranian scriptwriter and film director. For all his interest in dealing with the characters and incidents shaping the political and social history of the Qajar and Pahlavi periods, Ḥātami’s films are not particularly concerned with faithful representation and historical accuracy. He preferred a more creative interpretation.

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  • HATAMTU

    Cross-Reference

    See ELAM.

  • HĀTEF, SAYYED AḤMAD EṢFAHĀNI

    Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā and EIr

    (d. 1783), an influential poet of the 18th century.

  • HĀTEFI, ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Michele Bernardini

    (d. Ḵargerd, 1521) Persian poet and nephew of ʿAbd-al-Rahmān Jāmi.

  • ḤĀTEM ṬĀʾI

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    the epitome of generosity and munificence in Arabic and Persian anecdotal traditions.

  • ḤĀTEM-NĀMA

    Pegah Shahbaz

    a popular prose romance by an unknown author, consisting of the imaginary adventures of Ḥātem Ṭāʾi, the pre-Islamic Arab noble, renowned for his boundless generosity and graceful hospitality.

  • HATRA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Ḥaṭrā; Ar. Ḥażr), a strongly fortified city in Upper Mesopotamia (today northern Iraq), situated at lat 35°40′ N, long 42°45′ E in the midst of the desert steppe of the northern Jazīra.

  • HAUG, MARTIN

    Almut Hintze

    (1827-1876) Oriental scholar and one of the founders of Iranian studies. His contributions to Old and Middle Iranian studies remained influential well into the twentieth century.

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  • HAUMAVARGĀ

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    a term distinguishing one of the three groups of Sakā tribes, Sakā haumavargā, in some of the lists of the peoples in the Achaemenid royal inscriptions.

  • HAURVATĀT

    cross-reference

    See HORDĀD; AMƎŠA SPƎNTA.

  • ḤĀWI, AL-

    Lutz Richter-Bernburg

    (i.e., al-Ketāb al-ḥāwi fi’l-ṭebb “Comprehensive book on medicine”), the title of a major Arabic work on medicine in twenty-five volumes by Abu Bakr Moḥammad.

  • HAWK

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀZ.

  • HAWRAMAN

    cross-reference

    See AVROMAN.

  • ḤAWZA-YE ʿELMIYA

    Cross-Reference

    See IRAQ xi. SHIʿITE SEMINARIES IN IRAQ.

  • HAXAMĀNIŠ

    cross-reference

    See ACHAEMENES.

  • ḤAYĀT-DĀWUDI

    Pierre Oberling

    a sedentary Lor tribe dwelling in the dehestān of Ḥayāt-dāwūd, stretching from the Persian Gulf to the Māhur-e Mīlāti mountains, northwest of Bušehr.

  • HAYĀṬELA

    cross-reference

    See HEPHTHALITES.

  • HAYʾATHĀ-YE MOʾTALEFA-YE ESLĀMI

    Cross-Reference

    See JAMʿIYATHĀ-YE MOʾTALEFA-YE ESLĀMI.

  • ḤAYĀTI, ABDÜLHAY

    Tahsin Yazici

    or ʿAbd-al-Ḥayy, 15th century poet who wrote a series of Turkish poems modeled on Neẓāmi’s Ḵamsa.

  • ḤAYDAR ʿALI EṢFAHĀNI, Ḥājji Mirzā

    Moojan Momen

    (b. Isfahan, ca. 1830; d. Haifa, 1920), Bahāʾi polemicist.

  • ḤAYDAR KHAN ʿAMU-OḠLI

    Alireza Sheikholeslami

    (1880-1921), revolutionary activist who used terror to radicalize Persian politics in the early 20th century. Forced to leave Persia in 1911, he was sent back by the Bolsheviks to settle the conflict between the Jangalis and the Communist Party of Persia in Gilān. It is almost certain that he was killed by a group of Jangalis soon afterwards.

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  • ḤAYDAR MIRZĀ ṢAFAVI

    Michel M. Mazzaoui

    Safavid prince who considered himself to be the chosen successor of his father, Shah Ṭahmāsb, but was killed immediately after the latter’s death on 14 May 1576.

  • ḤAYDAR, Mir

    Cross-Reference

    See MANGHITS.

  • ḤAYDARI and NEʿMATI

    John R. Perry

    (also Amir-Ḥaydari; Neʿmat-Allāhi), mutually hostile urban moieties of Safavid and post-Safavid Iran.

  • HĀYEDA

    Erik Nakjavani

    the stage name of MAʿṢUMA DADEBĀLĀ (b. Tehran, 1942; d. San Jose, Calif., 1990), popular Persian singer. Hāyeda primarily distinguished herself by a naturally rich, operatic alto voice. For nearly two decades, she performed the āvāz and interpreted popular traditional and contemporary songs, all based on the modal system of traditional Persian music.

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  • ḤAYRAT, MOḤAMMAD ṢEDDIQ

    Habib Borjian

    (1878-1902) Tajik poet from Bukhar, literary scholars praise him as one of the best Persian poets of the late 19th century

  • ḤAYYA ʿALĀ ḴAYR AL-ʿAMAL

    Meir M. Bar-Asher

    a religious formula, meaning “Come to the best of actions,” included in the call to prayer (aḏān) by all three major branches of Shiʿism, Twelvers, Zaydis and Ismaʿilis.

  • HAŽĀR

    Keith Hitchins

    pen name of ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN ŠARAFKANDI (b. Mahābād, 1921; d. Tehran, 1991), Kurdish poet, philologist, and translator. A master of traditional Kurdish poetry, he infused the content of his poems with a new, uncompromising militancy. His language is simple and direct, close to the spoken form, because he passionately believed in the social mission of art and wanted his works to be read and understood by all.

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  • HAZĀR AFSĀN

    Cross-Reference

    Arabic title of The Arabian Nights, the world-famous collection of tales. See ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA.

  • HAZĀR O YAK ŠAB

    cross-reference

    See ALF LAYLA WA LAYLA.

  • HAZĀRA

    Arash Khazeni, Alessandro Monsutti, Charles M. Kieffer

    the third largest ethnic group of Afghanistan, after the Pashtuns and the Tājiks, who represent nearly a fifth of the total population. OVERVIEW of article: i. Historical geography of Hazārajāt, ii. History, iii. Ethnography and social organization, iv. Hazāragi dialect.

  • HAZĀRA i. Historical geography of Hazārajāt

    Arash Khazeni

    Hazārajāt, the homeland of the Hazāras, lies in the central highlands of Afghanistan, among the Kuh-e Bābā mountains and the western extremities of the Hindu Kush. Its boundaries have historically been inexact and shifting, and in some respects Hazārajāt denotes an ethnic and religious zone rather than a geographical one–that of Afghanistan’s Turko-Mongol Shiʿites.

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  • HAZĀRA ii. HISTORY

    Alessandro Monsutti

    Among the Hazāras themselves, three main theories exist: they are of Mongolian or Turko-Mongolian descent; they are the pre-Indo-European autochthones of the area; or they are of mixed race as a result of several waves of migration.

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  • HAZĀRA iii. Ethnography and social organization

    Alessandro Monsutti

    It would be misleading to present a fixed and definitive image of the main Hazāra tribes, as the affiliations are changing over time and the designations reflect the political situation.

  • HAZĀRA iv. Hazāragi dialect

    Charles M. Kieffer

    The number of hazāragi speakers is approximately 1.8 million. The Afghan hazāragi varieties of Persian are essentially very close to modern tājiki, or rather of modern dari Persian, or even kāboli Persian, but their typology still has to be fully defined.

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  • HAZĀRASPIDS

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a local dynasty of Kurdish origin which ruled in the Zagros mountains region of southwestern Persia, essentially in Lorestān and the adjacent parts of Fārs, and which flourished in the later Saljuq, Il-khanid, Mozaffarid, and Timurid periods.

  • HAZĀRBED

    M. Rahim Shayegan

    or Hazāruft; title of a high state official in Sasanian Iran.

  • HAZĀRSOTUN

    Gavin R. G. Hambly

    the palace-complex of Moḥammad b. Toḡloq (1325-1551) at Jahānpanāh (Delhi).

  • HAZELNUT

    H. Aʿlam

    (fandoq), the hard-shelled fruit of the shrub (or small tree) Corylus avellana L. (fam. Corylaceae), containing an edible kernel of high nutritious value.

  • ḤAZIN

    Jean During

    in Persian music, a small guša (melodic type) of the Persian classical model repertoire radif.

  • ḤAZIN LĀHIJI

    John R. Perry

    Persian poet and scholar (1692-1766), emblematic of the cultivated Shiʿite mirzā of Safavid and post-Safavid Iran who fled a politically dangerous and economically depressed milieu for the courts of Muslim India.

  • HAŽIR, ʿABD-AL-ḤOSAYN

    Fakhreddin Azimi

    (1895-1949), Minister, Prime Minister, Court Minister. Hažir’s assassination was primarily a result of the religio-political sentiments mobilized against him. Such sentiments were accentuated by his high-profile royalism, his identification with the least popular policies and conduct of the court and the government, particularly the rigging of elections, and his image as a close ally of the British.

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  • HAZL

    cross-reference

    See HUMOR.

  • HEAD GEAR

    cross-reference

    See CLOTHING.

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA

    Multiple Authors

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Pre-Islamic period. ii. Medieval period. iii. Qajar period. iv. Pahlavi period.

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Philippe Gignoux

    Health and medicine are clearly defined in Pahlavi literature in the philosophical and moral tradition already taught by the fifth-century BCE Greek “father of medicine,” Hippocrates.

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA ii. MEDIEVAL PERIOD

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA iii. QAJAR PERIOD

    Amir Arsalan Afkhami

    Under the Qajars a centralized public health policy was introduced for the first time in Persia.

  • HEALTH IN PERSIA iv. PAHLAVI PERIOD

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • HEAVEN

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀSMĀN; ESCHATOLOGY.

  • HECATAEUS OF MILETUS

    Joseph Wiesehöfer

    a Greek author from the city of Miletus in Asia Minor (fl. between 560 and 418 BCE), author of a geographical survey of the regions and the peoples in the Achaemenid empire.

  • HECATOMPYLUS

    cross-reference

    See ŠAHR-E QUMIS.

  • HEDĀYAT AL-MOTAʿALLEMIN FI’L-ṬEBB

    Jalal Matini

    the complete title of the oldest extant treatise on medicine written in Persia, which is also commonly referred to simply as Ketāb-e Hedāyat.

  • HEDĀYAT, MOḴBER-AL-SALṬANA

    Manouchehr Kasheff, Amemeh Yousefzadeh

    , MEHDIQOLI, statesman, author, and musicologist (1864-1955).

  • HEDĀYAT, MOḴBER-AL-SALṬANA i. LIFE AND WORK

    Manouchehr Kasheff

    , MEHDIQOLI, statesman, author, and musicologist (1864-1955). Highlights of his political career include a role in the Constitutional Revolution, tenures as governor-general of Fārs and of Azerbaijan during the critical years of World War I and its aftermath, and premiership in the early Pahlavi era.

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  • HEDĀYAT, MOḴBER-AL-SALṬANA ii. AS MUSICIAN

    Amemeh Yousefzadeh

    Apart from a book about musical theory, the Majmaʿ al-adwār (Tehran, 1938), we owe him one of the earliest complete notations of the repertoire of Persian music (radifs).

  • HEDĀYAT, REŻĀQOLI KHAN

    Paul E. Losensky

    Persian literary historian, administrator, and poet of the Qajar period (1800-1871).

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ

    Multiple Authors

    (Hedāyat, Ṣādeq), the eminent fiction writer (1903-1951), who had a vast influence on the next generation of Persian writers.

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ i. LIFE AND WORK

    Homa Katouzian and EIr

    Sadeq Hedayat was the youngest child of Hedā-yatqoli Khan Eʿteżād-al-Molk, the notable literary historian, the dean of the Military Academy.

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  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ ii. THEMES, PLOTS, AND TECHNIQUE IN HEDAYAT’S FICTION

    Michael Graig Hillmann

    Most of the short stories that Sadeq Hedayat wrote between the late 1920s and the mid-1930s are generally culture-specific, full of local color, and depict some aspects of Iranian life.

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ iii. HEDĀYAT AND FOLKLORE STUDIES

    Ulrich Marzolph

    Hedayat is acknowledged as a major contributor in twentieth-century Iran to the growing awareness devoted to the collection and study of various aspects of everyday culture, particularly verbal art. 

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ iv. TRANSLATIONS OF PAHLAVI TEXTS

    Touraj Daryaee

    Sadeq Hedayat traveled to India in 1936 and stayed for less than two years. In Bombay he began studying Middle Persian and some Pāzand with the Parsi scholar B. T.  Anklesaria.

  • HEDAYAT, SADEQ v. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

    EIr

    This article contains a selected biography of the works of Sadeq Hedayat.

  • HEDGEHOG

    Steven C. Anderson

    (ḵār-pošt, juja-tiḡi, čula), member of the Erinaceinae sub-family of the Erinaceidae family of insectivores; animals the size of a small rabbit. The various species of hedgehogs are found in deciduous woodlands, cultivated fields, and desert regions. They are primarily nocturnal. Hedgehogs are omnivorous, but they prefer animal food.

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  • HEDIN, SVEN

    Håkan Wahlquist

    Swedish explorer of, and prolific writer on, Central Asia and Persia (1865-1952).

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  • ḤEFẒ AL-ṢEḤḤA

    Nasseredin Parvin

    the first Iranian medical journal, published as a  monthly during 1906.

  • HEGEL, GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH

    M. Azadpour

    German idealist philosopher (1770-1831). Hegel based his discussion of pre-Islamic Persia on two main sources: 1. ancient Greek sources on Persia, such as Herodotus; 2. A. H. Anquetil-Duperron’s pioneering work, Le Zend-Avesta (1771).

  • ḤEJĀB

    cross-reference

    See ČĀDOR (2).

  • ḤEJĀZ

    Jean During

    in Persian music, an important modal type (šāh-guša) of the Persian radif.

  • ḤEJĀZI, MOḤAMMAD MOṬIʿ-AL-DAWLA

    M. Ghanoonparvar

    novelist, short-story writer, playwright, essayist, translator, government official, and member of the Senate (1901-1974)—one of a small group of Persians with Western-style education in the early twentieth century who displayed a sense of responsibility and mission to change and modernize Persia and to introduce Western ideas and modes of behavior.

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  • ḤEJLA

    Jean Calmard

    a bridal chamber (ḥejla-ye ʿarusi), generally in the shape of a curtained canopy, built by a ḥejla-sāz.

  • ḤEKMAT

    Nasseredin Parvin

    the first Persian-language newspaper to be published in an Arab country,  published in Cairo, 1892-1911.

  • ḤEKMAT BEY

    Tahsin Yazici

    , ʿĀREF, Ottoman šayḵ-al-eslām (supreme authority in religious matters) 1845-54, poet in Turkish, Arabic, and Persian.

  • HEKMAT, ʿALI-AṢḠAR

    EIr, with an initial contribution by Abbas Milani

    man of letters, university professor, cabinet minister, and the chief architect of the modernization of the educational system under Reza Shah (1893-1980). Once Reza Shah decided to unveil Persian women, he placed Hekmat in charge of mapping out a plan of action, which included co-education in the first four years of elementary school.

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  • HEKMAT, REŻĀ SARDĀR FĀḴER

    Abbas Milani

    Hekmat was a staunch critic of the infamous 1919 agreement between Persia and Britain and joined forces with the anti-British Tangestāni movement. Because of these activities, ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Mirzā Farmānfarmā, the powerful governor of Fārs, confiscated Ḥekmat’s properties.

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  • HEKMAT, ŠAMSI MORĀDPUR

    Houman Sarshar

    In Hekmat's capacity as the honorary treasurer of the High Council of Women’s Organization of Iran (Šurā-ye ʿali-e sāzmān-e zanān-e Irān), she represented Iran in various international conferences on the status of women and was instrumental in organizing ten daycare centers and orphanages throughout the country.

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  • HELĀLI ASTARĀBĀDI JAGATĀʾI

    Michele Bernardini

    Mawlānā Badr-al-Din (Nur-al-Din) accomplished Persian poet of Turkish origin (1470-1529).

  • HELIOCLES I

    Osmund Bopearachchi

    the last Greek king to reign in Bactria (ca. 145-130 BCE), known only through his monolingual coins.

  • HELL

    Multiple Authors

    This entry will treat the concept of hell in the Iranian culture under two rubrics.

  • HELL i. IN ZOROASTRIANISM

    Philippe Gignoux

    Hell is not explicitly mentioned in the Gathas. There are only allusions, where it is said that the soul and the daēnā of the wicked will be guests in the “house of falsehood.”

  • HELL ii. Islamic Period

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    Duzaḵ and jahannam are the terms commonly used in Persian for hell.

  • HELLANICUS OF LESBOS

    J. Wiesehöfer

    a polyhistorian, probably younger than Herodotus but older than Thucydides (ca. 480-395 B.C.?), who was much read in the ancient world.

  • HELLENISM

    Laurianne Martinez-Sève

    a term created in Judea in the 2nd century BCE, signifying the adoption by some of the Jews of Greek language, customs, and manners. By extension it came to mean Greek culture and all the characteristics which made a Greek recognize himself as such.

  • HELLESPONT

    cross-reference

    See XERXES.

  • ḤELLI, ḤASAN B. YUSOF B. MOṬAHHAR

    Sabine Schmidtke

    generally referred to, using his title, as “ʿAllāma Ḥelli,” prominent Imami theologian and jurist (1250-1325).

  • ḤELLI, NAJM-AL-DIN ABU’L-QĀSEM JAʿFAR

    Etan Kohlberg

    known as Moḥaqqeq or Moḥaqqeq-e awwal, a leading jurist of the Twelver Shiʿite school of Ḥella (b. ca. 1205-06, d. 1277).

  • HELMAND RIVER

    Multiple Authors

    the border river of Afghanistan and Persia. It originates in the mountains in the Hazārajāt (q.v) and flows into the Sistān in southeastern Persia and finally drains into the Hāmun Lake.

  • HELMAND RIVER i. GEOGRAPHY

    M. Jamil Hanifi and EIr

    At approximately 1,300 km, the Helmand River is the longest river in Afghanistan. Originating from the Koh-e Bābā heights of the Hindu Kush mountain range (about 40 km west of Kabul), the Helmand receives five tributaries—Kajrud (Kudrud), Arḡandāb, Terin, Arḡastān, and Tarnak.

  • HELMAND RIVER ii. IN ZOROASTRIAN TRADITION

    Gherardo Gnoli

    According to Avestan geography, the region of the Haētumant River extends in a southwest direction from the point of confluence of the Arḡandāb with the Helmand.

  • HELMAND RIVER iii. IN THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    The early Islamic geographers refer variously to the Helmand River as Hendmand, Hilmand, Hirmid, Hidmand, Hermand, or Hirmand, the usual name in Persian down to the present time.

  • HELMAND RIVER iv. IN THE LATE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES

    Arash Khazeni

    The late 19th and 20th centuries saw a number of colonial and national schemes, including boundary commisions and large-scale irrigation projects, that aimed to demarcate the Iran-Afghan borderlands.

  • HELMET

    Multiple Authors

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. In Pre-Islamic Iran. ii. In the Islamic period.

  • HELMET i. In Pre-Islamic Iran

    B. A. Litvinsky

    The Iranian tradition of helmet making is very old. Elam produced hemispherical bronze helmets with decorative figures that can be dated to the 14th century BCE.  Bronze and iron helmets from the 9th-8th centuries have been found at western Iranian sites (Ḥasanlu, Mārlik, Safidrud). They are either conical or hemispherical, and some are richly decorated.

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  • HELMET ii. In the Islamic Period

    M. V. Gorelik

    By the time the Muslims conquered the Iranian world (the territory now occupied by Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Azerbaijan), two helmet types were already known: egg-shaped and conical.

  • ḤELMI, RAFIQ

    Joyce Blau

    Kurdish historian, poet, and political activist (1898-1960).

  • ḤELYAT AL-MOTTAQIN

    Hamid Algar

    (“The Adornment of the Godfearing”), a compendious work that has remained highly popular, on recommended customs, norms, and modes of behavior.

  • HEMIN MOKRIĀNI

    Joyce Blau

    the pen name of Sayyed Moḥammad Amini Šayḵ-al-Eslām Mokri, Kurdish poet and journalist (1921-1986).

  • HEMP

    cross-reference

    See BANG.

  • HENDAVĀNA

    cross-reference

    See WATERMELON.

  • HENDUŠĀH B. SANJAR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    B. ʿABD-ALLAH SAḤEBI KIRANI, author of a Persian history  Tajāreb al-salaf (fl. first half of the 8th/14th century).

  • HENNA

    Hušang ʿAlam

    (Pers. ḥanā, Ar. ḥennāʾ), a russet or orange dye obtained from the pulverized leaves of the henna plant, Lawsonia alba Lam. (= L. inermis/spinosa L.; fam. Lythraceae).

  • HENNING, WALTER BRUNO

    Werner Sundermann

    The emphasis on the philological character of Henning’s work is justified not only because all his discoveries were made through deductions from or new interpretations of original sources, but also because his working system kept astonishingly aloof from theorems regarding contemporary linguistics, the philosophy of history, ethnology, and comparative religion.

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  • HEPHTHALITES

    A. D. H. Bivar

    (Arabic Hayṭāl, pl. Hayāṭela), a people who formed apparently the second wave of “Hunnish” tribal invaders to impinge on the Iranian and Indian worlds from the mid-fourth century CE.

  • HERACLEIDES OF CYME

    J. Wiesehöfer

    (fl. ca. 350 BCE), Greek author of a “Persian History” (Persika) in five books, which survives only in a few fragments.

  • HERACLEITUS OF EPHESUS

    J. Wiesehöfer

    (fl. ca. 500 BCE), Greek philosopher traditionally credited as the first to have written on the magi.

  • HERACLES

    Albert de Jong

    Heracles entered many other religions of the ancient world. He was adopted into the Roman pantheon in an early stage of its development and was identified—both as a “translation” and in the development of cultic practices—with the Phoenician god Melqart and the Babylonian god Nergal, as well as with Zoroastrian Verethraghna.

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  • HERACLIUS

    cross-reference

    See ḴOSROW II

  • HERAT

    Multiple Authors

    ancient city and province in northwestern Afghanistan. OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Geography. ii. History, Pre-Islamic Period. iii. History, Medieval Period. iv. Topography and urbanism. v. Local histories. vi. The Herat question. vii. The Herat frontier, 19th and 20th centuries.

  • HERAT i. GEOGRAPHY

    Arash Khazeni and EIr

    The province of Herat constitutes roughly the northern one-third of the western lowlands of Afghanistan, bordering on Persia and comprising the eastern extensions of the province of Khorasan.

  • HERAT ii. HISTORY, PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    W. J. Vogelsang

    The present town of Herat dates back to ancient times, but its exact age remains unknown. In Achaemenid times (ca. 550-330 BCE), the surrounding district was known as Haraiva.

  • HERAT iii. HISTORY, MEDIEVAL PERIOD

    Maria Szuppe

    When the Arab armies appeared in Khorasan in the 650s, Herat was counted among the twelve capital towns of the Sasanian empire.

  • HERAT iv. TOPOGRAPHY AND URBANISM

    Maria Szuppe

    In the medieval period, Herat, together with Nišāpur, Marv, and Balḵ, was one of the four main urban centers of the eastern Iranian world. In contrast to other ancient towns of the Iranian east, such as Marv or Samarqand, which successively occupied two or more sites, Herat has existed on the same location since its foundation.

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  • HERAT v. LOCAL HISTORIES

    Jürgen Paul

    Local histories of Herāt belong to three distinct literary genres: the biographical dictionary, the dynastic history, and the guide for pilgrims.

  • HERAT vi. THE HERAT QUESTION

    Abbas Amanat

    From the middle of the 18th century, following Nāder Shah’s assassination in 1747, Herat became the focus of a century-long power struggle and regional rivalry.

  • HERAT vii. THE HERAT FRONTIER IN THE LATTER HALF OF 19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES

    Arash Khazeni

    In the latter half of the 19th century, following the settlement of the Khorasan frontier with Persia in 1857, the rulers of Kabul, with British support, sought to make Herat a part of the Afghan state.

  • HERAUS

    D. W. Mac Dowall

    Central Asian clan chief of the Kushans, one of the five constituent tribes of the Yuezhi confederacy in the early first century CE. He struck tetradrachms and obols in relatively good silver.

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  • HERBARIUMS

    cross-reference

    See BOTANICAL STUDIES iii.

  • HĒRBED

    Philip G. Kreyenbroek

    a Zoroastrian priestly title, at present used for a “priest in minor orders,” that is, a man of priestly family who has undergone the initiatory Nāwar ceremony and is qualified to officiate at lower rituals.

  • HĒRBEDESTĀN

    Firoze M. Kotwal

    (school for priests, religious school), a Middle Persian term designating (1) Zoroastrian priestly studies and (2) an Avestan/Pahlavi text found together with the Nērangestān manuscripts.

  • HERBELOT de MOLAINVILLE, BARTHÉLEMY D’

    Moti Gharib Shojania

    (1625-95), one of the first orientalists to produce a systematic survey and alphabetized account of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish literature with dictionaries for each language.

  • HERBERT, THOMAS

    R. W. Ferrier

    , Sir (1606-1682), author of the first English account of Persia, having accompanied the royal embassy from King Charles I to the Safavid Shah ʿAbbās I in 1626-29.

  • HERBERT, THOMAS (2)

    John Butler

    Because of Herbert's humane care of the King, he was raised to the baronetcy by Charles II, having previously been deprived of the knighthood he had received at the hands of Henry Cromwell, Lord Deputy of Ireland, in 1658. The last years of his life were spent as an antiquarian and businessman.

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  • HERDS and FLOCKS

    J.-P. Digard and M.-H. Papoli Yazdi

    In the Iranian world, domestic herbivores have long been raised exclusively on natural grazing, as it is still true in many places, especially among the nomadic tribes.

  • HERMAEUS

    cross-reference

    See INDO-GREEK DYNASTY.

  • HERMAS, THE SHEPHERD OF

    Werner Sundermann

    title of an early Christian paraenetic apocalypse composed in Greek by a certain Hermas, who presents himself as an emancipated slave and then a Roman businessman.

  • HERMELIN, AXEL ERIC

    Bo Utas

    (1860-1944), Swedish author and prolific translator of Persian works of literature.

  • HERMENEUTICS

    B. Todd Lawson

    of pre-modern Islamic and Shiʿite exegesis, the principles and methods, or philosophy, of scriptural interpretation, as distinct from the act of interpretation.

  • HERMES

    Albert de Jong

    Hermes was identified with the Roman god Mercury, god of commerce and trade, and came to be symbolized with the moneybag. In Egypt, he was identified with the god Thoth; he was the source of a large number of writings outlining the ways in which the soul could be released from the bonds of matter.

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  • HERMIAS

    cross-reference

    See ḴOSROW I, forthcoming online.

  • HERMIPPUS OF SMYRNA

    J. Wiesehöfer

    third-century BCE Greek grammarian who wrote on “Zoroaster’s writings.”

  • HERMITAGE MUSEUM

    B. I. Marshak and A. B. Nikitin, Anatol Ivanov

    The State Hermitage Museum of St. Petersburg, Russia, possesses some of the richest collections of Persian art.

  • HERMITAGE MUSEUM i. COLLECTION OF THE PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    B. I. Marshak and A. B. Nikitin

    Among the most ancient objects of Iranian art in the Hermitage collection are 55 Elamite painted vessels of the late 4th-3rd millennium BCE.

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  • HERMITAGE MUSEUM ii. COLLECTION OF THE ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Anatol Ivanov

    Persian art from the advent of Islam until the beginning of the 20th century is well represented in the State Hermitage Museum. However, not all periods in this 1400-year time-span are represented equally well, because of the way the collection developed. It was put together only after the establishment of the Oriental Department in 1920.

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  • HERODIAN

    Philip Huyse

    (fl. shortly before 250 CE), historian, probably a native of Syria, who wrote a Greek history of the Roman emperors from the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180 CE to the accession of Gordian III in 238.

  • HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    author of the Histories, the first monumental Greek work in prose which is still extant (5th cent. BCE).

  • HERODOTUS i. INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORIES

    Robert Rollinger

    Philologists of Hellenistic times divided Herodotus’s opus magnum into nine books and subdivided these into chapters.

  • HERODOTUS ii. THE HISTORIES AS A SOURCE FOR PERSIA AND PERSIANS

    Robert Rollinger

    An evaluation of Herodotus’s treatment of Persia and the Persians is a difficult task. The subject is not limited to a specific logos but is ubiquitous in the Histories.

  • HERODOTUS iii. DEFINING THE PERSIANS

    Robert Rollinger

    In the Histories the Persians are sometimes not exactly distinguishable from other peoples of their empire, especially when the Greeks’ opponents are simply qualified as “Persians.” The Persians generally are run together with the Medes.

  • HERODOTUS iv. CYRUS ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    The historical past takes on clearer outline beginning with the figure of Cyrus the Great. With him the Persians too are introduced into world history.

  • HERODOTUS v. CAMBYSES ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    Cambyses, the son of Cyrus, is first described by Herodotus at a time when his father’s reign was already about to end.

  • HERODOTUS vi. DARIUS ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    Herodotus connects the beginning of Darius’s reign with a deep break in the history of Persian royalty. He describes the rule of the Magus and palace administrator Patizeithes as an attempt at usurpation.

  • HERODOTUS vii. XERXES ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    The young king inherited a solid empire, which was greater than any before in history. The subsequent great war of the years 480 and 479 Herodotus describes as an immense struggle, to which he devotes a third of his work.

  • HERODOTUS viii. MARDONIUS ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS

    Robert Rollinger

    After Xerxes’ retreat, Mardonius prepared his offensive on land. He also wanted the higher powers to be on his side.

  • HERODOTUS ix. TIGRANES AND THE BATTLE OF MYCALE

    Robert Rollinger

    After Salamis, the escaped Persian fleet for a while ceased playing any further part. During the winter it was anchored in part at Cyme, and in part before Samos.

  • HERODOTUS x. ARTAYCTES AND THE FINALE

    Robert Rollinger

    After the battle of Mycale, the Greeks advanced as far as the Hellespont, where they found that Xerxes’ bridge was already destroyed.

  • HERODOTUS xi. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Robert Rollinger

    This article constitutes a selected biography of Herodotus.

  • HERON

    Cross-Reference

    See BŪTĪMĀR.

  • HERON-ALLEN, EDWARD

    Joan Navarre

    Although Heron-Allen did not have a full formal education, his intellectual curiosity and passion for learning never waned, as illustrated by the long list of hobbies and interests in his entry in Who’s Who: “Persian literature; Marine Zoology; Meteorology; Heraldry; Bibliography; Occasional Essays and Scientific Romances; Auricula and Asparagus Culture.”

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  • HERTEL, JOHANNES

    Almut Hintze

    Hertel’s lasting contributions to scholarship are his earlier works on Sanskrit narrative literature and its transmission. They culminated in the publication of a four-volume edition of the Pañcatantra in the Harvard Oriental Series, vols. 11-14 (1908-15). After his appointment to the Indology chair in Leipzig, he turned to Vedic studies and, from 1924, to Avestan.

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  • HERZEGOVINA

    cross-reference

    See BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA.

  • HERZFELD, ERNST

    Multiple Authors

    Herzfeld is known as an archeologist, philologist, and polyhistor, one of the towering figures in ancient Near Eastern and Iranian studies during the first half of the 20th century. To him we owe many decisive contributions to Islamic, Sasanian, and Prehistoric archeology and history of Iran, Iraq, and Syria. He was the first professor for Near Eastern archeology in the world.

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  • HERZFELD, ERNST i. LIFE AND WORK

    Stefan R. Hauser

    (1879-1948). In retrospect, Herzfeld was one of the last examples of the all-encompassing, erudite learning of the 19th century humanistic cultural tradition. Herzfeld combined a wide array of talents and interests. 

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  • HERZFELD, ERNST ii. HERZFELD AND PASARGADAE

    David Stronach

    Ernst Herzfeld probably devoted more attention to the study of Achaemenid Iran than to any other single topic. His name will always be associated with Pasargadae, the dynastic seat of Cyrus II (the Great), the founder of the Achaemenid Empire.

  • HERZFELD, ERNST iii. HERZFELD AND PERSEPOLIS

    Hubertus von Gall

    Herzfeld first visited Persepolis in November 1905 during his return from the Assur excavation. He returned to Persepolis during his expedition to Persia, Iraq, and Afghanistan, which lasted from February 1923 to October 1925.

  • HERZFELD, ERNST iv. HERZFELD AND THE PAIKULI INSCRIPTION

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    The monument at Paikuli (Pāikūlī) lies on the Iraqi side of the border with Iran on a north-south line drawn from Solaimānīya in Iraq to Qaṣr-e Šīrīn in Persia on the ancient road from Ctesiphon to Azerbaijan.

  • HERZFELD, ERNST v. HERZFELD AND THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT IRAN

    Josef Wiesehöfer

    Herzfeld’s classical education, giving him familiarity with Greek and Latin literature, and his training in Oriental philology as well as in archeology and architectural techniques proved of great benefit in his study of pre-Islamic Iranian history and culture.

  • ḤESĀBI, MAḤMUD

    Hessamaddin Arfaei and Fariborz Majidi

    Mahmud Hesabi worked as an electrical engineer in the Paris railway system. In the meantime, he continued his studies in physics at Paris University, Sorbonne under the noted physicist Aimé Cotton and obtained his doctorate in 1927. His dissertation was on Sensibilité des cellules photoélectriques.

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  • ḤESĀR (1)

    Yuri Bregel

    region in the eastern part of Transoxania, in the upper course of the Sorḵān Daryā (medieval Čaḡānrud) and the Kāfernehān.

  • ḤEṢĀR (2)

    Jean During

    in Persian music, an important section (šāh-guša) in the Persian and Azeri radifs, its name probably originating from the town in Tajikistan.

  • ḤEṢĀR, TEPE

    Cross-Reference

    (Tappa Ḥeṣār), prehistoric site located just south of Dāmḡān in northeastern Persia. See TEPE HISSAR.

  • ḤESBA

    cross-reference

    See MOḤTASEB.

  • HESIOD

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. Hēsíodos), Greek epic poet (fl. ca. 700 BCE). By mentioning for the first time the Scythians, Hesiod belongs to the Greek authorities for Iranian matters.

  • HESYCHIUS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. Hēsýchios), Greek lexicographer from Alexandria, whose lexicon records a number of Iranian words (6th or possibly 5th century CE).

  • HIDALI

    Matthew W. Stolper

    city and region in Elam; a residence of Elamite kings in the early 7th century B.C.E., a regional administrative center thereafter.

  • HIDDEN IMAM

    Cross-Reference

    See ISLAM IN IRAN vii. The Concept of Mahdi in Twelver Shi'ism.

  • HILL, GEORGE FRANCIS

    Carmen Arnold-Biucchi

    Hill was born at Berhampore, Bengal, the youngest of five children to the missionary Rev. Samuel John Hill and Leonora Josephine, born Müller, of Danish descent. He came to England at the age of four, attended the School for Sons of Missionaries at Blackheath, and went to University College School and University College, London.

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  • HINDU

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (Hendu) denotes in Persian an inhabitant of the Indian subcontinent as well as a follower of Hinduism. The stereotype of the Hindu developed into an element of lyrical imagery which had little to do with reality.

  • HINDU KUSH

    Ervin Grötzbach

    the name given to the southwest range of the massive middle and south Asiatic mountain complex lying partly in Afghanistan and partly in Pakistan.

  • HINDU PERSIAN POETS

    Stefano Pello

    From the late 16th century Hindus contributed to the development of Indo-Persian literary culture in general, and to the output of Persian verse in particular.

  • HINZ, (A.) WALTHER

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Hinz served as a counter-intelligence officer during World War II and suffered a period of internment afterwards. Due to his suspension from his teaching post by the British military government, he was forced to earn his living by another profession, partly as a translator, and, from 1950, as the political editor of a newspaper in Göttingen.

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  • HIPPOCRATES

    Lutz Richter-Bernburg

    or Boqrāṭ in Islamic tradition, where he is often referred to as “the first codifier of medicine” (4th-3rd cents. BCE).

  • ḤIRA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    city on the desert fringes of southwestern Mesopotamia; known in pre-Islamic times as the capital of the Lakhmid Arab dynasty, clients of the Sasanians, it survived as an urban settlement into the early centuries of the Islamic period.

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  • HISSAR, TEPE

    Cross-Reference

    (Tappa Ḥeṣār), prehistoric site located just south of Dāmḡān in northeastern Persia. See TEPE HISSAR.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY

    Multiple Authors

    This entry is concerned with the historiography of the Iranian and Persephone world from the pre-Islamic period through the 20th century in Persian and other Iranian languages. The periods and their subdivisions of this historiography are covered in 14 articles.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY i. INTRODUCTION

    Elton Daniel

    Historiography, literally, is the study not of history but of the writing of history. In modern usage, this term covers a wide range of related but distinct areas of inquiry.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY ii. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    A. SH. Shahbazi

    Iranian historiography remained unaffected by the Herodotean school and developed from oral traditions and the Mesopotamian-style “quasi-history,” which embellished historical narratives.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY iii. EARLY ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Elton L. Daniel

    It might be questioned whether there is, strictly speaking, any “historiography of Persia in the early Islamic period” at all, since it is by no means clear that there was an Islamic “Persia” prior to the rise of the Safavids.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY iv. MONGOL PERIOD

    Charles Melville

    Persian historiography reached its maturity during the period of 13th-15th centuries, which might broadly be described as the Turko-Mongol era.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY v. TIMURID PERIOD

    Maria Szuppe

    Timurid historiography is firmly rooted within the Persian literary tradition of official court histories of the post-Mongol period.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY vi. SAFAVID PERIOD

    Sholeh Quinn

    Safavid historiography, although developing unique features of its own, had its origins in the eastern Timurid tradition that was centered in Herāt.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY vii. AFSHARID AND ZAND PERIODS

    Ernest Tucker

    Persian historical writing in the 18th century reflected the profound changes that occurred in Iran after the1722 Afghan conquest of Isfahan.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY viii. QAJAR PERIOD

    Abbas Amanat

    In the century and a half that constituted the Qajar period (1786-1925), writing of history evolved from production of annalistic court chronicles and other traditional genres into the earliest experimentations in modern historiography.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY ix. PAHLAVI PERIOD

    Abbas Amanat, EIr

    Historiography of this period will be treated in two separate entries: (1) General survey of historical writings; and (2) Specific topics concerning historical works.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY ix. PAHLAVI PERIOD (1)

    Abbas Amanat

    The historical studies of this period are primarily about documenting Iran’s national identity.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY ix. PAHLAVI PERIOD (2)

    EIr

    a survey of contributions in the fields of chronology, calendar systems, religious history, and cultural continuity from pre-Islamic to the Islamic period, and a survey of the ultra-nationalistic current in historical writings in the Pahlavi period.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY x. ISLAMIC REPUBLIC.

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY xi. AFGHANISTAN

    Christine Noelle-Karimi

    The historiography of the day not only bears witness to the perceptions current at the time but also was subject to reinterpretation as new historical predilections arose. The available historical accounts may thus be read on several levels.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY xii. CENTRAL ASIA

    Yuri Bregel

    The first Persian historical work produced in Central Asia (Transoxiana, Ḵʷārazm, Farḡāna, and Eastern Turkestan) was the 10th-century translation of the history of Ṭabari.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY xiii. THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT

    cross-reference

    See INDIA xvi.

  • HISTORIOGRAPHY xiv. THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

    Sara Nur Yildiz

    Ottoman historical works composed in Persian occupy an important place in the corpus of court-oriented Ottoman historical writing of the early and classical periods.

  • HNČʿAK

    Aram Arkun

    colloquial term for members of the Social Democratic Hnčʿakean Party [SDHP], founded in Switzerland by Russian Armenians in 1887, with  branches in Persia, the Russian empire, the Ottoman empire, and elsewhere.

  • ḤOBAYŠ B. EBRĀHIM B. MOḤAMMAD TEFLISI

    Tahsin Yazici

    author of numerous scientific works who lived in Anatolia (d. ca. 1203-04).

  • ḤOḎEQ, JUNAYDOLLO MAḴDUM

    Keith Hitchins

    (ḤĀḎEQ, JONAYD-ALLĀH; b. mid-1780s; killed 1843), one of the leading Tajik poets of his time.

  • HODIVALA, SHAHPURSHAH HORMASJI DINSHAHJI

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    (d. 1944), professor of literature, history, and political economy,  best known for his works on Parsi history and on numismatics.

  • HODIVALA, SHAPURJI KAVASJI

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    (1870-1931), scholar of Avestan and Zoroastrian studies.

  • ḤODUD AL-ʿĀLAM

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a concise but very important Persian geography of the then known world, Islamic and non-Islamic, begun in 982-83 by an unknown author from the province of Guzgān (in northern Afghanistan).

  • HOERNLE, AUGUSTUS FREDERIC RUDOLF

    Ursula Sims-Williams

    philologist of Indian languages and decipherer of Khotanese (1841-1918).

  • HOFFMANN, KARL

    Johanna Narten

    Hoffmann was mainly interested in Indo-Iranian studies, which he did not conceive of as a mere combination of Indology and Iranian studies, but as a distinct subject comprising historical philology and comparative linguistics. His studies are essentially devoted to Vedic, transmitted in India, and to Avestan and Old Persian on the Iranian side.

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  • HOJIR

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    in traditional Iranian history, a hero who guarded the Dež-e Sapid “White Fort” on the border of Iran and Turān.

  • ḤOJJAT

    Maria Dakake

    (“proof or argument”), a term used as: (1) a line of argument in debate; (2) designation of the Shiʿite Imams;  (3) an epithet of the Twelfth Imam; (4) a high official in the Ismaʿili missionary activities

  • ḤOJJAT-AL-ESLĀM

    Hamid Algar

    (lit. Proof of Islam), a title awarded to Shiʿite scholars, originally as an honorific but later as a means of indicating their status in the hierarchy of the learned.

  • ḤOJJATIYA

    Mahmoud Sadri

    a Shiʿite religious lay association founded in 1953 by the charismatic cleric Shaikh Maḥmud Ḥalabi to defend Islam against the Bahai missionary activities.

  • HOJVIRI, ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALI

    Gerhard Böwering

    B. ʿOṮMĀN B. ʿALI AL-ḠAZNAVI AL-JOLLĀBI (d. ca. 1071-72), author of the Kašf al-maḥjub, the most celebrated early Persian Sufi treatise.

  • HOLDICH, THOMAS HUNGERFORD

    Denis Wright

    As head of the Baluchistan Survey Party from 1883, Holdich organized surveys of south Baluchistan and Makran as far as Jask and Bandar ʿAbbās. In 1884 he headed the Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission’s survey party; in 1896 he was the chief British Commissioner on the Perso-Baluch Boundary Commission.

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  • ḤOLWI, JAMĀL-AL-DIN MAḤMUD

    Tahsin Yazi

    biographer of the leaders of the Ḵalwati Sufi order and minor poet (1574-1654).

  • HŌM

    cross-reference

    See HAOMA.

  • HŌM YAŠT

    W. W. Malandra

    name given to a section of the Avestan Yasna, namely, Y. 9-11.11. It is central to the ritual and is recited prior to the priestly consumption of the parahaoma (Pahl. parāhōm).

  • HOMĀM-AL-DIN

    William L. Hanaway and Leonard Lewisohn

    13th-century Persian poet, best known for his ḡazals, which follow those of Saʿdi in style and tone.

  • HŌMĀN

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    son of Vēsa, in Iranian traditional history one of the most celebrated heroes of Turān.

  • HOMĀY ČEHRZĀD

    Jalil Doostkhah

    according to Iranian traditional history, a Kayānid queen; she was daughter, wife, and successor to the throne of Bahman, son of Esfandiār.

  • HOMĀY O HOMĀYUN

    cross-reference

    See ḴᵛĀJU KERMĀNI.

  • HOMĀYUN

    Jean During

    (lit. “auspicious”), an important modal system (dastgāh) in traditional Persian music.

  • HOMĀYUN PĀDEŠĀH

    Wheeler M. Thackston

    , NĀṢER-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD, (1508–56), second Mughal emperor in Kabul (1530–56) and northern India (1530–40 and 1555–56). succesor to Bābor.

  • HOMMAIRE de HELL, IGNACE XAVIER MORAND

    Jacqueline Calmard-Compas

    French engineer, geographer, traveler (1812-1848). He carried out pioneering scientific research in the Ottoman empire, southern Russia, and Persia

  • HOMOSEXUALITY

    Multiple Authors

    OVERVIEW of the entry: i. In Zoroastrianism. ii. In Islamic law. iii. In Persian literature. iv. In modern Persia. See Supplement.  

  • HOMOSEXUALITY i. IN ZOROASTRIANISM

    Prods Oktor Skjærvø

    Zoroastrian literature contains discussions of personal relations only in legal contexts and is quite explicit with regard to sins of a sexual nature.

  • HOMOSEXUALITY ii. IN ISLAMIC LAW

    E. K. Rowson

    The foundational texts of Islam address, and generally condemn, sexual relations between members of the same sex.

  • HOMOSEXUALITY iii. IN PERSIAN LITERATURE

    EIr

    a sharp contrast exists between the treatment of homosexuality in Islamic law and its reflection in Persian literature, particularly poetry (the chief vehicle of Persian literary expression).

  • HOMOSEXUALITY iv. IN MODERN IRAN

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • HONAR O MARDOM

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a monthly magazine published by the General Office of Fine Arts in the Ministry of Education, 1957, 1962-79.

  • HONARESTĀN-E ʿĀLI-E MUSIQI-E MELLI

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • HONARMANDI, HASAN

    Kāmyār ʿĀbedi

    poet, translator, and literary scholar.

  • HONEY

    Hushang Aʿlam

    (ʿasal, archaic Pers. angobin).  In Iranian lore, according to the Nowruz-nāma, Hušang, the second  Pišdādiān king, first “brought out honey from the zanbur (“wasp”).

  • ḤOQAYNI

    Wilferd Madelung

    the nesba of two 11th-century Zaydi Imams, father and son, scholars of religious law.

  • ḤOQUQ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    the name of various 20th-century periodicals in Iran and Afghanistan.

  • ḤOQUQ-E EMRUZ

    Nassereddin Parvin

    a journal published irregularly in Tehran, 1963-76.

  • HORDĀD

    Antonio Panaino

    “Integrity (of body), Wholeness”, one of the Avestan entities (AMƎŠA SPƎNTA), normally mentioned in association with Amərətāt (AMURDĀD) already in the Gāθās.

  • HORMIZD

    cross-reference

    See HORMOZD i.

  • HORMOZĀN

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    one of the last military leaders of Sasanian Persia, a member of one of the seven great families of Sasanian Persia (d. 644).

  • HORMOZD (1)

    cross-reference

    See AHURA MAZDĀ.

  • HORMOZD (2)

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    (Ormisdas), a brother of the Sasanian great king Šāpur II (r. 307-79 CE), who participated on the Roman side in the emperor Julian’s Persian expedition of 363 CE.

  • HORMOZD I

    M. RAHIM SHAYEGAN

    Sasanian great king (r. 272-73 CE), the throne name of Šāpur I’s son and and successor, Hormozd-Ardašēr.

  • HORMOZD II

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    Sasanian great king (r. 303-09 CE). He assumed a crown very similar to that of Bahrām II,  representing the varəγna, the royal falcon.

  • HORMOZD III

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    Sasanian great king (r. 457-59 C.E.). He was the eldest son and heir of Yazdegerd II and “was king of Sejestān" (Ṭabari).

  • HORMOZD IV

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    Sasanian great king (r. 579-90 CE). He succeeded Ḵosrow I Anōširavān just as the latter was negotiating a peace treaty with the Byzantine empire.

  • HORMOZD V

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    Sasanian great king (r. 630-32 CE) in the turbulent years following the murder of Ḵosrow II Parvēz (628).

  • HORMOZD KUŠĀNŠĀH

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    Sasanian prince governor of Kušān. He is known from his coins minted in eastern Iran and references in three Latin sources. His coins are gold scyphate (cup-shaped) and light bronze issues; rare heavy copper and silver coins also occur.

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  • HORMOZDGĀN

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    , BATTLE OF, the engagement which brought Ardašir I and the Sasanian dynasty to power, 28 April 224 CE..

  • HORMOZGĀN PROVINCE

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • HORMOZI, SAʿID

    Jean During

    Said Hormozi did not perform in public, worked as a bank employee, and frequented musical circles such as that of Solaymān Amir Qāsemi, who preserved the purity of Persian music. He was a Sufi affiliated to the Ṣafi-ʿAlišāh brotherhood and entered a state of profound meditation when he played the setār, which made his music particularly captivating.

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  • HORMUZ i. PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    D. T. Potts

    island and a strategic strait (Tanga-ye Hormoz) in the Persian Gulf, linking it to the Gulf of Oman, as well as the name of a medieval port near the strait.

  • HORMUZ ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Willem Floor

    Hormuz fell to the Arabs in 650-51. In the 10th century, the town of Hormuz was the chief port for Kermān and Sistān, although the main Persian Gulf port was Jannāba. It was known for its cultivation of a variety of millet (ḏorra), indigo, cumin, and sugarcane, while it allegedly supplied all of Persia with dates. Irrigation was by subterranean channels (qanāt).

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  • HORN, PAUL

    Erich Kettenhofen

    German philologist and specialist in Iranian and Turkish languages (1863-1908).

  • ḤORR-E ʿĀMELI

    Meir M. Bar Asher

    (1624-1693), one of the outstanding Twelver Shiʿite Hadith scholars of the Aḵbāri school and a prolific author.

  • ḤORR-E RIĀḤI

    Jean Calmard

    a leading tribesman in Kufa, who intercepted Ḥosayn b. ʿAli and his party and led them to Karbalā, but later repented and fought and died (10 October 680) there on Ḥosayn’s side.

  • HORSE

    cross-reference

    See ASB.

  • HORSE RACING

    Azartash Azarnoush

    The history of horse racing in Iran can be traced back to the Achaemenid period. Xenophon refers to a race set up by Cyrus II.

  • HORSESHOES

    Wolfram Kleiss

    (naʿl), iron protectors for the hooves of pack animals and mounts. In Persia, as in southern Europe, both horses and donkeys are shod.

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  • HORUFISM

    Hamid Algar

    a body of antinomian and incarnationist doctrines evolved by Fażl-Allāh Astarābādi (d. 1394), known to his followers also as Fażl-e Yazdān (“the generosity of God”). Its principal features were elaborate numerological interpretations of the letters of the Perso-Arabic alphabet and an attempt to correlate them with the human form.

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  • ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ʿALI BEDLISI

    Tahsin Yazici

    NURBAḴŠI, Kurdish Sufi author of a commentary on the Koran, among other works (d. 1494-95).

  • ḤOSĀM-AL-DIN ČALABI

    Mohammad Estelami

    , ḤASAN B. MOḤAMMAD b. Ḥasan, Ebn Aḵi Tork (d. 1284), leading disciple and first successor of Jalāl-al-Din Rumi.

  • HŌŠANG

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    called Pēšdād, an early hero-king in Iranian tradition, father of the Iranians and founder of the Pēšdādian dynasty.

  • HŌŠANG JĀMĀSP

    Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal

    a distinguished Parsi scholar-priest (1833-1908).

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALĀʾ-AL-DAWLA

    cross-reference

    See JALĀYERIDS.

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI

    Multiple Authors

    Hosayn b. Ali is the second surviving grandson of the Prophet Moḥammad through his daughter Fāṭema and the third Imam of the Shiʿites after his father and his elder brother Ḥasan.

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI i. LIFE AND SIGNIFICANCE IN SHIʿISM

    Wilferd Madelung

    In contrast to the pacifist and conciliatory character of his elder brother, Ḥosayn inherited his father’s fighting spirit and intense family pride, although he did not acquire his military prowess and experience.

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI ii. IN POPULAR SHIʿISM

    Jean Calmard

    Legendary accounts about Ḥosayn and his martyrdom were from the outset influenced by his status as a Shiʿite Imam.

  • ḤOSAYN B. ʿALI iii. THE PASSION OF ḤOSAYN

    Peter Chelkowski

    The taʿzia (literally “mourning”) is a dramatic form which Shiʿite Muslims in Persia have created to commemorate the tragedy of Ḥosayn ebn ʿAli, and thus it is comparable to the Christian passion play. See also TA'ZIA.

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  • ḤOSAYN B. OVAYS

    cross-reference

    See JALAYERIDS.

  • ḤOSAYN B. RUḤ

    Said Amir Arjomand

    , SHAIKH ABU’L-QĀSEM ḤOSAYN B. RUḤ B. ABI BAḤR NOWBAḴTI (d. 938), third of the four “special vicegerents” (nowwab-e ḵāṣṣa) of the Hidden Imam.

  • ḤOSAYN BĀYQARĀ

    Hans R. Roemer

    the common designation for Sultan Abu’l-Ḡāzi Ḥosayn Mirzā b. Manṣur b. Bāyqarā, the last Timurid ruler of major importance in Khorasan (r. 1469-70 and 1470-1506).

  • ḤOSAYN KARBALĀʾI

    Leonard Lewisohn

    TABRIZI BĀBĀ-FARAJI, popularly known as Ebn Karbalāʾi, a major Persian historian of Sufis and Sufism of 16th-century Persia and a poet (d. 1589).

  • ḤOSAYN KHAN ĀJUDĀN-BĀŠI

    Ḥ. Maḥbubi Ardakāni

    probably the most important officer to hold the military rank of adjudant-en-chef (see ĀJŪDĀN-BĀŠI) during the Qajar period (d. ca.1866-67).

  • ḤOSAYN KHAN KAMĀNČAKAŠ

    Ameneh Youssefzadeh

    a famous musician and a master of the kamānča, the chief traditional Persian string instrument played with a bow (d. 1934).

  • ḤOSAYN KHAN MOQADDAM MARĀḠAʾI

    cross-reference

    See ĀJUDĀN-BĀŠI; NEẒĀM-AL-DAWLA.

  • ḤOSAYN KHAN ŠĀMLU

    Roger M. Savory

    , b. ʿAbdi Beg Šāmlu (d. 1535), nephew of Shah Esmāʿil I, Safavid governor of Herat.

  • ḤOSAYN SHAH ARḠUN

    cross-reference

    See ARGHUNID DYNASTY OF SIND in Supplement.

  • ḤOSAYN-E KORD-E ŠABESTARI

    Ulrich Marzolph

    Persian popular romance narrating the exploits of a Kurdish warrior from Šabestar known solely by the name of Ḥosayn.

  • ḤOSAYNI

    Bruno Nettl

    a guša (significant melodic unit) of the canonic repertory of Persian classical music (radif).

  • ḤOSAYNI BALḴI

    ʿAbd-al-ḥayy Ḥabibi

    13th-century translator into Persian of Wāʿeẓ-e Balḵi’s no longer extant Arabic work, the Fażāʾel-e Balḵ.

  • ḤOSAYNI DAŠTAKI ŠIRĀZI

    cross-reference

    See DAŠTAKI, AMIR JAMĀL-AL-DIN.

  • ḤOSAYNIYA

    Jean Calmard

    buildings specifically designed to serve as venues for Moḥarram ceremonies commemorating the martyrdom of Ḥosayn b. ʿAli.

  • ḤOSAYNIYA-YE MOŠIR

    Jean Calmard

    a ḥosayniya building in the Sang-e Siāh quarter of Shiraz, famous for its exquisite tile paintings.

  • ḤOSAYNQOLI KHAN MĀFI

    Cross-Reference

    See NEẒĀM-AL-SALṬANA MĀFI, ḤOSAYNQOLI KHAN.

  • ḤOSAYNQOLI KHAN SARDĀR-E IRAVĀNI

    George A. Bournoutian

    important governor in the early Qajar period (b. ca. 1742, d. 1831).

  • ḤOSAYNQOLI, ĀQĀ

    Ameneh Youssefzadeh

    noted tār player and teacher (1853-1916). His performances were considered both technically brilliant and artistically exquisite. The regularity and force of the down and up strokes (rāst and čap) of his plectrum were much admired. He used a five-string tār and disapproved of the addition of the sixth string.

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  • ḤOSN O DEL

    Ḏabiḥ-Allāh Ṣafā

    an allegorical work by Fattāḥi Nišāburi (1404-46), one of the best examples of rhyming prose in the Timurid period.

  • ḤOSN-E TAʿLIL

    Natalia Chalisova

    (lit. “beauty of rationale”), “fantastic etiology,” a rhetorical device among the figures of ʿelm-e badiʿ (the science of rhetorical embellishment).

  • HOSSEIN, ANDRÉ

    Iraj Khademi

    As a composer, Hossein was much inspired by traditional Persian music, and most of his works demonstrate this intellectual preoccupation. He knew the tār very well and could be considered one of the great tār players of his time. He began playing this instrument as a child, and later composed several works for it.

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  • HOSSEINI, MANSOUREH

    Hengameh Fouladvand

    (1926-2012), pioneer modernist painter, writer, and gallerist, among the first Iranian artists who incorporated calligraphy in their modern works.

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  • HOSTAGE CRISIS

    Mohsen M. Milani and EIr

    the events following the seizure of the American embassy in Tehran by leftist Islamist students in 1979 with subsequent wide-ranging repercussions on Iran’s domestic politics as well as on U.S.-Iran relations.

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  • HOTZ, ALBERT PAUL HERMAN

    Cyrus Ala’i

    a Dutch trader, collector of artifacts, and author on Iran (1855-1930).

  • HOUSING IN IRAN

    Habibollah Zanjani

    This entry examines: (1) the growth of housing units during 1966-96; (2) housing policies adopted in various development plans and the results; (3) main characteristics of housing in Iran; and (4) investment in, and economics of, housing.

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  • HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, ALBERT

    John D. Gurney

    , Sir, engineer and employee of the Persian government for over thirty years in the later 19th and early 20th centuries (1846-1916). For both the Persian government and the expatriate community, his importance reached far beyond any official position he held. Unlike many of the foreign advisers employed by successive Persian governments, he was both loyal and knowledgeable.

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  • HOVEYDA, AMIR-ABBAS

    Abbas Milani

    (Amir ʿAbbās Hoveydā; 1919-1979), the longest serving prime minister in the modern history of Iran (1964-1975). His tenure  can be divided into two phases. In the 1960s, he was full of optimism and energy; in the 1970s he was characterized by cynicism, a clinging attachment to power and its perks, and an almost despondent air of resignation. What remained the same were his economic policies.

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  • HUART, CLÉMENT

    Jean Calmard

    French orientalist (1854-1926), especially known as editor and translator of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish sources and prolific author of works covering many aspects of Oriental studies.

  • HÜBSCHMANN, (JOHANN) HEINRICH

    Erich Kettenhofen and Rüdiger Schmitt

    Hübschmann felt himself to be an orientalist. Originally an Iranian scholar, through his fundamental studies he became also the founder of modern Armenian linguistics; for it was he who created a solid basis for future historical-comparative research in this field.

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  • ḪUDIMIRI

    Inna Medvedskaya

    a peripheral district and city in Elam, mentioned only in the 7th century BCE, in the Assyrian sources during the reign of Ashurbanapal.

  • HŪGAR

    cross-reference

    See ALBORZ.

  • HŪITI

    cross-reference

    See AVESTAN PEOPLE.

  • HUḴT

    Nassereddin Parvin

    monthly periodical published in Persian by Iranian Zoroastrians, 1950-84.

  • HULĀGU KHAN

    Reuven Amitai

    fifth son of Tolui (and thus grandson of Čengiz Khan) and founder of the Il-khanid dynasty (b. ca. 1215, d. 1265).

  • HUMAN MIGRATION

    Mehdi Amani and Habibollah Zanjani

    This subject includes three types of human migration in modern Iran: (1) migration within the country; (2) immigration of foreign nationals to Iran; and (3) emigration of Iranians to foreign countries.

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  • HUMAN RIGHTS

    cross-reference

    See Supplement.

  • HUMATA HŪXTA HUVARŠTA

    Mary Boyce

    three Avestan words which encapsulate the ethical goals of Zoroastrianism. In form verbal adjectives,  they were substantivized to mean “good thought, good word, good act.”

  • HUMBAN

    cross-reference

    See ELAM vi.

  • HUMOR

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    The making of jokes. In the present article the focus will be on description and classification of the types of humor that can be found in Persian literary sources, mainly belonging to the classical period.

  • HUMORALISM

    Amir Arsalan Afkhami

    (ṭebb-e jālinusi/ṭebb-e yunāni), or Galenism, a medical philosophy that considers illness as an imbalance in the body’s four elemental humors. which are identified as blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Each of these humors is believed to possess two natures: hot or cold and dry or moist.

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  • HUMORS

    cross-reference

    See HUMORALISM.

  • HUNNIC COINAGE

    Michael Alram

    coins struck from the late fourth to the early eighth century by successive Central Asian invaders (so-called Iranian Huns) of northeastern Iran and northwestern India. It must be emphasized that our knowledge of these Central Asian nomads is, to a certain extent, still vague; and the research on their history is controversial.

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  • HUNS

    Martin Schottky

    collective term for horsemen of various origins leading a nomadic or semi-nomadic lifestyle, thought to have descended from the Hsiung-nu, a nomadic people first mentioned in Chinese sources in 318 BCE.

  • HUNTING IN IRAN

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    i. In the pre-Islamic period. ii. In the Islamic period. See Supplement. Persian has two terms for hunting, naḵjīr and šekār, both of which have spread beyond Iranian languages.

  • HUNTINGTON, ELLSWORTH

    Ursula Sims-Williams

    American geographer (1876-1947). In Central Asia ihe collected extensive data and acquired several manuscripts and wooden documents in Kharoṣṭhī, Tibetan, Sanskrit, and Khotanese.

  • HUR

    Nassereddin Parvin

    name of a newspaper (1943-45) and a bilingual (Persian and Armenian) monthly journal (1971-74).

  • HÜSING, GEORG

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    versatile German scholar, whose fields included Old Iranian and Elamite studies (1869-1930).

  • HUŠT

    Mary Boyce and Firoze Kotwal

    Zoroastrian-Persian term for the area (in known practice a town-quarter, a village, or a group of villages) assigned to a priest.

  • HUŠYĀR ŠIRĀZI

    DARYOUSH ASHOURI

    Upon his return to Persia with his German wife, Sirazi was employed as professor in the newly established University of Tehran. As a devoted and enthusiastic educator and author, his life, until his early death, was spent on energetically teaching his students and on introducing certain texts of German literature to Persian readers.

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  • HUTAOSA

    cross-reference

    See ATOSSA.

  • HUTH, GEORG

    Michael Knüppel

    (1867-1906) German Indologist, Tibetologist, Tugusologist, Mongolist, and the founder of Tibetology as a field of research at German universities.

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  • HUTUXŠ

    cross-reference

    and HUTUXŠBED, artisans as a class and the chief of artisans in Sasanian society. See CLASS SYSTEM ii.

  • HUVIŠKA

    A. D. H. Bivar

    ruler of the Great Kushan lineage, successor of Kaniška I the Great, known chiefly from inscriptions and from a prolific coinage. He reigned from at least the year 28 to 60 of the Kaniška Era, equivalent to 154-86 CE.

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  • HUZWĀREŠ

    D. Durkin-Meisterernst

    a term describing the use of Semitic word masks in Middle Persian texts, written in the official orthography of the Sasanian state and surviving in Zoroastrian texts, and a small number of inscriptions, and letters.

  • HVARCIERA

    cross-reference

    See XWARČIHR.

  • HYDARNES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Gk. Hydárnēs), rendering of the Old Persian male name Vidṛna held by several historical persons of the Achaemenid period.

  • HYDE, THOMAS

    A. V. Williams

    , D.D., English orientalist, Professor of Arabic and Hebrew in the University of Oxford, the first scholar to attempt to write a comprehensive description of the religion of Zoroaster (1636-1703).

  • HYDERABAD

    Gavin Hambly, Deborah Hutton

    (Ḥaydarābād), city in the Deccan of India, the former capital of the Nizams (Neẓāms) of Hyderabad (ca. 1724-1948) and at present the state capital of Andhra Pradesh in southern India. It had a three and a half century history as one of the major Muslim states and as a center of Indo-Persian culture in the subcontinent.

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  • HYDROLOGY

    Multiple Authors

    i. Iranian plateau. ĀB. ii. Southwestern Persia. iii. Afghanistan. From a hydrological perspective, southwestern Persia must be considered as part of the Persian Gulf drainage region. Extending over an area of more than 350,000 km², its main drainage area covers the central and southwestern Zagros mountain areas with their extremely complex geomorphology.

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  • HYENA

    Steven C. Anderson

    Hyaena hyaena (Linnaeus, 1758), Pers. kaftār. The striped hyena is the only current Asian representative of the mammalian family Hyaenidae. Principal threats to hyena populations today are vehicular traffic (since they scavenge road kills at night), wanton shooting, and secondary poisoning. The hyena is a protected species in Iran.

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  • HYGIENE

    Cross-Reference

    See HEALTH IN PERSIA.

  • HYMN OF THE PEARL

    J. R. Russell

    or Hymn of the Soul, a Syriac poem, of which an early Greek translation also exists, composed probably in the third century CE in the region of Edessa.

  • HYPERBOLE

    N. Chalisova

    a figure (or figures) of speech in the classical Persian system of ʿelm al-badiʿ.

  • HYRCANIA

    cross-reference

    See GORGĀN ii.

  • HYSTASPES

    Cross Reference

    father of Darius I. See GOŠTĀSP.

  • HYSTASPES, ORACLES OF

    Werner Sundermann

    (Gk. Khrēseis Hystaspou), a collection of prophecies ascribed to Vištāspa, the patron and follower of Zarathustra.

  • H~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter H entries.