Table of Contents

  • ḠARB-ZADEGĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • ḠARČESTĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    name of a region in early Islamic times, situated to the north of the upper Harīrūd and the Paropamisus range and on the head waters of the Moṟḡāb.

  • GARCIN DE TASSY

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • GARDANE MISSION

    Jean Calmard

    (1807-9), a diplomatic and military project between France and Persia which represented Napoleon’s last attempt to realize his Oriental ambitions. From late 1795, Persia became part of French projects against British India. From the renewal of Franco-Ottoman relations (June 1802), he sought information on Persia.

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  • GARDEN

    Multiple Authors

    referring to a garden estate, intended primarily for pleasure rather than permanent residence or production of crops, formally laid out, usually incorporating architectural elements, such as ornamental pools, gate-houses, and pavilions.

  • GARDEN i. ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Mehrdad Fakour

    Since the first millenium B.C.E., the garden has been an integral part of Persian architecture, be it imperial or vernacular.

  • GARDEN ii. ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Lisa Golombek

    Donald Wilber’s study of the Persian garden remains the most comprehensive, to which should be added the articles by Ettinghausen and Pinder-Wilson in the proceedings of the Dumbarton Oaks Colloquium on the Islamic Garden.

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  • GARDEN iii. INFLUENCE OF PERSIAN GARDENS IN INDIA

    Howard Crane

    Traces of Sultanate period gardens in the Persian style survive around Delhi in the citadel (Kōṭlā) of the Tughluqid Fīrūzšāh III (1351-88) and at Vasant Vihar (14th century). Mughal landscape architecture, which was characterized by terraced sites, čahārbāḡ  plans, and raised walks, is perhaps most renowned for its dramatic and inventive use of moving water.

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  • GARDEN iv. BOTANICAL GARDENS

    Borhan Riazi

    In Persia there are only three botanical gardens (bāḡ-e gīāh-šenāsī) in the exact scientific sense of this term.

  • GARDEN vi. IN PERSIAN ART

    Lisa Golombek

    For the decorative arts, the “garden carpet” is the quintessential re-creation of the garden, while paintings depict the garden as a setting for events. Vegetal motifs as ornament may be understood as generic allusions to the garden. In special circumstances, these allusions may be viewed as allusions to paradise themes.

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  • GARDĪZ

    Daniel Balland

    (Gardēz), a city in the Solaymān Mountains of eastern Afghanistan, 122 km south of Kabul. The city is situated at 2,300 m above sea-level, in a large intramountainous depression watered by the upper course of the Rūd-e Gardīz.

  • GARDĪZĪ, ABŪ SAʿĪD ʿABD-al-ḤAYY

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Żaḥḥāk b. Maḥmūd, Persian historian of the early 5th/11th century. He was clearly connected with the Ghaznavid court and administration and close to the sultans.

  • GARDŌY

    Cross-Reference

    sister of Bahrām Čōbīn. See BAHRĀM (2) vii.

  • GARGAR RIVER

    Cross-Reference

    See KĀRŪN RIVER.

  • GARLIC

    Etrat Elahi

    or allium sativum; a species in the onion family Alliaceae used as an ingredient in a variety of Persian dishes mainly as a condiment.

  • GARMAPADA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    name of the fourth month (June-July) of the Old Persian calendar.

  • GARMSĀR

    Bernard Hourcade

    a region (Qešlāq and Garmsār) in the province of Semnān situated beyond the Caspian Gates, known particularly as a stopover on the great road to Khorasan.

  • GARMSĪR AND SARDSĪR

    Xavier de Planhol

    lit. "warm zones and cold zones"; two terms identifying regional entities that form a major geographical contrast deeply affecting the popular conscience in Persia.

  • GARŌDMĀN

    William W. Malandra

    the Pahlavi name for heaven and paradise.

  • GARRETT COLLECTION

    Kambiz Eslami

    one of the finest collections of Near Eastern manuscripts, bequeathed to the Princeton University Library by Robert Garrett (1875-1961), a graduate and a trustee of the university.