Table of Contents
Mortażā Momayyez, Peter Chelkowski
Broadly speaking, graphic art and design have a long history in Persia; their antecedents can be seen in graphic motifs and patterns on ancient clay and metal vessels, stone reliefs, seals, brickwork, glazed tiles, plaster and wood carvings, cloths, carpets, marquetry, miniature paintings, calligraphy, and illumination of manuscripts.This Article Has Images/Tables.
John Michael Rogers
Gray's initiation into eastern art, for which there was then no provision at any British university, came in 1928, when he worked for a season on the excavations at the great palace of the Byzantine emperors in Constantinople, followed by study in Vienna under Josef Strzygowski, who was, however, already sunk deep in diffusionism.This Article Has Images/Tables.
William W. Malandra
In 1921 Gray was appointed associate professor of philology at the University of Nebraska, where he remained until his appointment at Columbia University as professor of Oriental Languages in 1926. In 1935, he became Professor of Comparative Linguistics, a position he held until his retirement in 1944.This Article Has Images/Tables.
OVERVIEW of the entry: i. Introduction, ii. An Overview of Relations: Safavid to the Present, iii. British influence in Persia in the 19th century, iv. British influence in Persia, 1900-21, v. British influence during the Reżā Shah period, 1921-41, vi. British influence in Persia, 1941-79, vii. British Travelers to Persia, viii. British Archeological Excavations, ix. Iranian Studies in Britian, Pre-Islamic, x. Iranian Studies in Britain, the Islamic Period, xi. Persian Art Collections in Britain, xii. The Persian Community in Britain, xiii. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), xiv. The British Institute of Persian Studies, xv. British Schools in Persia.
During the 16th century, several unsuccessful attempts were made by the Muscovy (or Russia) Company of London to develop trade between London and Persia via Russia.
Prior to the Safavid period, contacts between Britain and Persia were confined to the 13th century, and were infrequent and of short duration.
British imperial interests in Persia in the Qajar period were primarily determined by the concern for the security of colonial India and, secondarily, by trade, telegraphic communication, and financial or other conces-sionary agreements.
In the late 1890s, the Foreign Office in London came to regard Germany as the main threat to the European balance of power and British imperial hegemony around the globe.
During the reign of Reżā Shah (1925-1941) a profound transformation took place in both the character and the scope of British influence in Persia.
For the greater part of the Qajar era (1796-1924) Persia was the scene of intense rivalry between the Russian and British empires.