Table of Contents

  • GREECE xv. Ancient Greek borrowings of Persian herbs and plants of medicinal value

    Luigi Arata

    It is well attested that the ancient Greek city-states (poleis) and the Persian Empire had continuous commercial contact which influenced the ordinary life of both parties.

  • GREECE xvi. Greek Ideas and Sciences in Sasanian Iran

    Phillipe Gignoux

    The arrival of Greek ideas and sciences in Iran have been traced through translated texts.  However, there are allusions and references that we can glean from Pahlavi literature, and on occasion in longer passages where the closely related medical and philosophical theories of the ancient East indicate their origins in Greek or Indian civilization. Some of these references go back as far as the Achaemenid period too.


    George Bournoutian

    After graduating from Moscow University with a degree in literature and law, Griboedov first joined the military and then the diplomatic service. Griboedov joined the Russian administration in Transcaucasia in early 1819 and was sent by the Chief Administrator, General Ermolov, to Persia to establish the Russian Mission in Tehran.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GRIGORIAN, Marcos

    Hengameh Fouladvand

    (Mārcos [better known as Marco] Grigoriān, b. Kropotkin, Russia, 5 December 1925; d. Yerevan, 27 August 2007), Iranian-Armenian artist, actor, teacher, gallery owner, and collector who played a pioneering role in the development of Iranian modern art.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • GRĪW

    Werner Sundermann

    a Middle Iranian word meaning “neck, throat” and “self, soul.”


    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (b. Hannoversch-Münden, 1775; d. Hannover, 1853), German philologist and scholar of oriental studies.


    Jacqueline Calmard-Compas

    (b. Aubais, Gard, France, 1885; d. Paris, 1952), French historian who based his wide-ranging research on the studies of the leading French orientalists of his time, and wrote works of synthesis on various aspects of Oriental history and culture.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.




    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (Encyclopaedia of Iranian Philology; Strassburg, 1895-1904, reprinted Berlin and New York, 1974), the first attempt to summarize the knowledge of all subjects concerning Iran — the languages and literatures, history and culture of Iran and the Iranian peoples — that had been achieved by the end of the 19th century.


    Werner Sundermann

    (b. Munich, 1856; d. Lenggries, 1935), prominent German Indologist, Tibetologist, art scholar, and archeologist.