Table of Contents

  • BARM-e DELAK

    L. Vanden Berghe

    a site with a spring about 10 km southeast of Shiraz, where three panels bearing two Sasanian rock reliefs are carved in the mountain at a height of about 6.5 m above the ground.  

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BARMAKIDS

    I. Abbas

    or Barāmeka,  fam­ily stemming from Balḵ, secretaries and viziers under the early ʿAbbasids, not before Hešām b. ʿAbd al-Malek (723-42), until 802 (under Hārūn al-Rašīd).

  • BĀRMĀN

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    the son of Vīsa, one of the Turanian heroes mentioned in the Šāh-nāma as a member of the army that Afrāsīāb led into Iran during the reign of Nowḏar.

  • BARMĀYA

    Dj. Khaleghi Motlagh

    in the traditional history, the name of a cow associated with Ferēdūn and eventually killed by Żaḥḥāk.

  • BARNĀMA-RĪZĪ

    F. Daftary

    “planning.” Among the countries of the Middle East Iran has a relatively long history of economic development planning. By the time of the revolution in 1979, five development plans of various durations had been implemented in ran over a thirty-year period.

  • BARNAVĪ, ʿALĀ-AL-DĪN ČEŠTĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ČEŠTĪYA.

  • BARQ

    W. Floor and B. Hourcade, D. Balland

    The electrification of individual government build­ings appears to have begun during the reign of Nāṣer-al-­Dīn Shah with the state armory and the shah’s residence in Tehran It was only in 1900 that the first electrical plant (of 6,6 kw) was built in Iran, in the city of Mašhad.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BARQ newspapers

    L. P. Elwell-Sutton

    (Lightning), the name of three Persian newspapers, 1910-17,  1943, 1950s.

  • BARQĀNĪ, ABŪ BAKR AḤMAD

    H. Schützinger

    B. MOḤAMMAD B. AḤMAD B. ḠĀLEB (948-1034), a traditionist (moḥaddeṯ), philologist, and lawyer of the Shafeʿite school.

  • BARR, KAJ

    J. P. Asmussen

    Danish orientalist (1896-1970). Among his publications are an edition from F. C. Andreas’s papers of the Pahlavi Psalter fragments discovered at Turfan and a collaboration with A. Christensen and W. B. Henning to publish Andreas’s notes on Iranian dialects.

  • BARRA

    G. Cardascia

    or bāru, an Iranian loanword designating a tax in Babylonian texts. The word appears nearly seventy times between 442 and 417 B.C. almost exclusively in tax receipts.

  • BARRASĪHĀ-YE TĀRĪḴĪ

    N. Parvīn

    journal of historical studies of Iran, 1966-78. Some of the articles, particularly those bearing on the eighteenth and nineteenth cen­turies and descriptive geography, were well researched and original. The journal also published a number of historical documents.

  • BARŠABBĀ

    N. Sims-Williams

    legendary bishop of Marv and founder of the Christian church in eastern Iran. The only completely preserved versions of the legend are found in Arabic sources.

  • BARṢAUMĀ

    A. Vööbus

    a 5th-century bishop of Nisibis. As a convinced Nestorian, he believed that the Persian church should follow this course, as it was in the interest of the Sasanian state to wean the church away from the West.

  • BARSĪĀN

    W. Kleiss

    a village in the dehestān of Barāʾān 45 km southeast of Isfahan on the north bank of the Zāyandarūd; situated on the old caravan route from Isfahan to Yazd, it prospered quickly in Saljuq times.

  • BARSḴĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    or Barsḡān, a place in Central Asia, on the southern shores of the Ïsïq-Göl, in the region known as Semirechye or Yeti-su “the land of the seven rivers,” in what is now the Kyrgyz Republic.

  • BARSOM

    M. F. Kanga

    (Av. barəsman), sacred twigs that form an important part of the Zoroastrian liturgical apparatus. The number varies according to the ceremony to be performed. Today brass or silver wires are used in place of twigs.

  • BARSOM YAŠT

    P. O. Skjærvø

    in the liturgical manuscripts of the Avesta the name of the second hād (chapter) of the Yasna.

  • BARTANGĪ

    G. Buddruss

    The first text in Bartangī, a specimen of folk poetry, was published by Zarubin in 1924. The text corpus available now is limited: Zarubin, 1937 (poetry; prose text in Bartangī and Rōšanī); Sokolova, 1953 (text with versions in Šuḡnī, Rōšānī, Ḵūfī, and Bar­tangī); Sokolova, 1960.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BARTHÉLEMY, ADRIEN

    F. Richard

    French orientalist (1859-1949). A devoted linguist, he published a study of the Pahlavi Gujastag Abāliš, before a career in diplomacy led him to a monumental dictionary of eastern Arabic dialects.