Table of Contents


    L. Vanden Berghe

    a necropolis excavated in 1969-70 by the Belgian archeological mission in Iran, Īlām Province.



    See ELYMAIS.


    K. Schippmann

    a complex of ancient ruins in Ḵūzestān, situated 18 km northwest of the town of Masjed-e Solaymān (where similar ruins exist) at 675 m altitude on the edge of the Baḵtīārī mountains.


    Multiple Authors

    Slaves and slavery.  i. In the Achaemenid period. ii. In the Sasanian period. iii. In the Islamic period up to the Mongol invasion. iv. From the Mongols to the abolition of slavery. v. Military slavery in Islamic Iran.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI i. Achaemenid Period

    Muhammad A. Dandamayev

    At the beginning of the Achaemenid period, the institution of slavery was still poorly developed in Iran. In Media a custom existed whereby a poor man could place himself at the disposal of a rich person if the latter agreed to feed him. The position of such a man was similar to that of a slave.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI ii. In the Sasanian period

    Maria Macuch

    The most commonly used expressions designating slaves in the Middle Persian sources are anšahrīg, literally “foreigner,” and bandag, literally “bound.” The latter term does not exclusively designate the slave but is used of every subject of the sovereign.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI iii. In the Islamic period up to the Mongol invasion

    C. E. Bosworth

    Early Islamic society was essentially a slave-holding one, and it seems likely that Iranian society of the time exhibited two of the types of slavery known elsewhere in the pre-modern Old World—agricultural/industrial slavery and domestic slavery.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI iv. From the Mongols to the abolition of slavery

    Willem Floor

    After the Mongol period, the manner in which white slaves were obtained basically remained unchanged, that is, warfare and raids continued to be the main slave-producing activities.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI v. Military slavery in Islamic Iran

    C. E. Bosworth

    Military slavery may have been known in the Sasanian period, but, as the Sasanian army was based essentially on the free, mailed cavalryman, any slaves within it can only have been in the little-regarded following of infantrymen.

  • BARDA and BARDA-DĀRI vi. Regulations Governing Slavery in Islamic Jurisprudence

    Hamid Algar

    Slavery is designated in feqh (religious law) as reqq “weakness.” The weakness in question is extrinsic to the person of the slave and results from his legal debarment (ḥejr).


    C. E. Bosworth

    or BARDAʿA (Arm. Partav, Georgian Bardavi, Mid. Pers. Pērōzāpāt), the chief town until the 10th century of the Islamic province of Arrān, the classical Caucasian Albania.



    old name of the city of Kermān.


    P. O. Skjærvø

    (Syr. Bar Dayṣān, Ar. Ebn Dayṣān), gnostic thinker (154-222) who occupies a position between the Syriac gnostic systems of the first two centuries A.D. and the Iranian gnostic system of Mani of the third century.


    M. A. Dandamayev

    the younger son of Cyrus the Great. Tarius in his Behistun inscription (DB 1.30-33) says that Cambyses, after becoming king, but before his departure to Egypt, slew Bardiya and that the assassination was kept a secret from the people.

  • BAṚĒC(Ī)

    D. Balland

    a Pashtun tribe in southern Afghanistan. Location of the Baṛēc at the southern extremity of Pashtun territory and at the limits of the Baluch has allowed multiple contacts with the latter and Brahui, including intermarriages, as well as linguistic or even genealogical assimilation.


    Q. Ahmad

    Indo­-Muslim saint, author of Persian works, known for his reformist ideas, military ventures, and eventual martyr­dom (1786-1831).



    See BARSOM.



    See BĀRZĀNĪ.


    D. Balland, B. Hourcade, and C. M. Kieffer

    On the tropical margins of the Irano-Afghan plateau, snow is in fact exceptional below an altitude of 1,000 meters. Not that it cannot fall in abundance there, but then it is a memorable event. In the remaining two-thirds of the territory of Iran and Afghanistan snow is a common occurrence.

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    D. M. MacEoin

    , MOLLĀ, important figure in early Babism (1823-49).