Table of Contents

  • BAHAISM xi. Bahai Conventions

    M. Momen

    The first Bahai convention in the world was probably the meeting convened by the Chicago Spiritual Assembly on 26 November 1907 for the purpose of choosing a site for the House of Worship that was to be built.

  • BAHAISM xii. Bahai Literature

    D. M. MacEoin

    This article is concerned primarily with poetry and belles lettres rather than apologetic, didactic, historiographical, liturgical, or scriptural materials.

  • BAHAISM xiii. Bahai Pioneers

    Moojan Momen

    “Pioneer” (in English) and mohājer (in Persian) are terms used in Bahai literature to designate those who leave their homes to settle in another locality with the intention of spreading the Bahai faith or supporting existing Bahai communities.


    M. Momen

    (1846-1932), eldest daughter of Bahāʾ-Allāh, considered by Bahais as the “outstanding heroine of the Bahai Dispensation.”

  • BAHĀR (1)

    Ḡ.-Ḥ. Yūsofī

    a Persian literary, scientific, political, and social-affairs monthly, 1910-11, 1921-22. Bahār represented a departure from traditional Persian journalism; readers found its willingness to discuss contemporary literature and literary criticism a refreshing change.

  • BAHĀR (2)

    Esmāʿil Jassim

    a newspaper founded by Shaikh Aḥmad Tehrāni (d. 1957), known as Aḥmad Bahār, in 1917, in Mašhad.


    M. B. Loraine, J. Matīnī

    poet, scholar, journalist, politician, and historian (1886-1951). i. Life and work. ii. Bahār as a poet.


    M. G. Morony

    “The spring of Ḵosrow,” one of the names of a huge, late Sasanian royal carpet measuring 60 cubits (araš, ḏerāʿ) square (ca. 27 m x 27 m). It was divided among the conquering Muslims after Madāʾen was captured in 637.


    G. M. Wickens

    (Spring garden, Abode of spring), an anecdotal and moralistic work of belles-lettres in prose (both plain and rhythmic-rhyming) and verse, by ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān Jāmī, composed in the poet’s old age, in 1487.


    ʿA.-A. Saʿīdī Sīrjānī

    the name of a garden, public square, and complex of buildings in central Tehran.