Table of Contents



    See ABŪ ḠĀZĪ.



    See MUGHALS.


    Tahsin Yazici

    (1874-1925), AḤMAD, Persian calligrapher and poet.


    Multiple Authors

    or Bahai faith, a religion founded in the nineteenth century by Bahāʾ-Allāh that grew out of the Iranian messianic movement of Babism and developed into a world religion with internationalist and pacifist emphases.

  • BAHAISM ii. Bahai Calendar and Festivals

    A. Banani

    The Bahai year consists of 19 months of 19 days each, i.e., 361 days, with the addition of four intercalary days between the 18th and the 19th months in order to adjust the calendar to the solar year. The Bāb named the months after the attributes of God.

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  • BAHAISM iii. Bahai and Babi Schisms

    D. M. MacEoin

    Although it never developed much beyond the stage of a sectarian movement within Shiʿite Islam, Babism experienced a number of minor but interesting divisions, particularly in its early phase.

  • BAHAISM iv. The Bahai Communities

    P. Smith

    Bahai expansion beyond the Middle East and the Iranian diaspora only began after the passing of Bahāʾ-Allāh (1892) and the succession of his son, ʿAbd-al-Bahāʾ (1844-1921), as leader. In the 1890s, an active community developed in North America, Americans in turn establishing Bahai groups in England, France, Germany, Hawaii, and Japan.

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  • BAHAISM v. The Bahai Community in Iran

    V. Rafati

    With the Declaration of the Bāb in 1844, followed by his being accepted as the promised Qāʾem (the Hidden Imam) by a handful of early believers, the first Babi community was born in the city of Shiraz.

  • BAHAISM vi. The Bahai Community of Ashkhabad

    V. Rafati

    Attracted by religious freedom and economic opportunities unavailable to them in Iran, Iranian Bahais began to settle in Ashkhabad around 1884; the community prospered and reached its peak during the period 1917-28.

  • BAHAISM vii. Bahai Persecutions

    D. M. MacEoin

    Bahai persecutions were a pattern of continuing discriminatory measures against adherents and institutions of the Bahai religion, punctuated by outbreaks of both random and organized violence.