Table of Contents

  • BILGETIGIN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Turkish name associated with personalities before and during the Ghaznavid period.

  • BILIMORIA, NUSHERWANJI FRAMJI

    Kaikhusroo M. JamaspAsa

    (1852-1922), Zoroastrian journalist, editor, and publisher.

  • BĪMA

    Willem Floor

    (bīme; Hindi bīmā), insurance. “Insurance” activities are re­ferred to for the first time in 1891, by Eʿtemād-­al-Salṭana in his diary entry of 13 Decem­ber.

  • BĪMĀRESTĀN

    Ṣādeq Sajjādī

    "hospital." The oldest Iranian hospital about which we have some information was that at Jondīšāpūr (earlier Bēt Lapaṭ), which, with the attached school of medi­cine, was founded at an unknown date.

  • BĪNĀLŪD, KŪH-E

    Eckart Ehlers

    mountain range in northeast­ern Iran between Mašhad in the east and Nīšāpūr in the west with elevations of up to 3,211 m.

  • BĪNAMĀZĪ

    James R. Russell, Hamid Algar

    NPers. “the state of being without prayer,” term for the state of a menstruant woman. i. In Zoroastrianism. ii. In Islam. All bodily discharges are regarded by Zoroastrians as violations of the wholeness of the person.

  • BĪNEŠ KAŠMĪRĪ, ESMĀʿĪL

    N. H. Ansari

    Persian poet of India in the 17th century. He left six maṯnawīs and a dīvān of ḡazals and qaṣīdas.

  • BINYON, (ROBERT) LAURENCE

    Parvin Loloi

    (1869-1943), prolific English poet, translator, art historian and critic, notably of Oriental art.

  • BIOGRAPHIES

    Cross-Reference

    See Supplement.

  • BIRCH

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    (Pers.tūs), the genus Betula L., found in western Azer­baijan, along the Karaj river, and other locations on the southern slopes of the Alborz.

  • BIRD, ISABELLA L

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    also known under her married surname of Bishop (1831-1904), British traveler in western Iran and Kurdistan during the late Victorian period.

  • BIRDS

    Derek A. Scott

    Of 324 breeding species, 131 occur widely in the Palearctic region, 81 are Western Palearctic species, reaching the easternmost extremities of their ranges in Iran, while 19 are typically Eastern Palearctic species, reaching the westernmost tip of their ranges in Iran.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BĪRĪ

    Cross-Reference

    or BĪRĪTEKĪN. See BÖRI.

  • BĪRJAND

    Moḥammad-Ḥasan Ganjī

    town and district in the southeastern part of the province of Khorasan (lat 32°52’  N, long 59°13’ E).

  • BĪRŪNĪ

    Mohammad Ali Djamalzadeh and Ḥasan Javādī

    the public or male quarters of wealthy households, used for the conduct of business, male religious ceremonies, and parties for men.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN

    Multiple Authors

    scholar and polymath of the period of the late Samanids and early Ghaznavids and one of the two greatest intellectual figures of his time in the eastern lands of the Muslim world (973-after 1050).

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN i. Life

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Bīrūnī was born in the outer suburb (bīrūn, hence his nesba) of Kāṯ, the capital of the Afrighid Ḵᵛārazmšāhs, and spent the first twenty-five years of his life in Ḵᵛārazm.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN ii. Bibliography

    David Pingree

    Ca. 1035-36 Bīrūnī wrote a Resāla fī fehrest kotob Moḥammad b. Zakarīyāʾ al-Rāzī in two parts, the first devoted to Rāzī and his works, the second to the books that he himself had authored up to that time.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN iii. Mathematics and Astronomy

    George Saliba

    Ninety-five of 146 books known to have been written by Bīrūnī were devoted to astronomy, mathematics, and related subjects like math­ematical geography.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN iv. Geography

    David Pingree

    Bīrūnī’s conceptions of the spherical shape of the earth and of the geographical features on its surface are those of Greek scientists, especially Ptolemy, as modified by earlier Muslim geographers.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN v. Pharmacology and Mineralogy

    Georges C. Anawati

    Bīrūnī, a traveler proficient in several Asian languages and an inquisitive and attentive ob­server, was interested all his life in gathering precise information on plants and their medicinal uses.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN vi. History and Chronology

    David Pingree

    Bīrūnī’s main essay on political history is now known only from quotations. Discussions of historical events and methodology are found in connection with the lists of kings in his al-Āṯār al-bāqīa and Qānūn, in India, and scattered throughout his other works.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN vii. History of Religions

    François de Blois

    In this article some of his remarks on pre-Islamic Iranian religions, on Christian­ity and Judaism, and on Muslim sects will be discussed.

  • BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN viii. Indology

    Bruce B. Lawrence

    Bīrūnī’s magnum opus in Indology is Ketāb taḥqīq mā le’l-Hend men maqūla maqbūla fi’l-ʿaql aw marḏūla (The book confirming what pertains to India, whether rational or despicable).

  • BĪŠĀPŪR

    Edward J. Keall

    ancient and medieval town in Fārs, in the Sasanian period the administrative center of one of the five districts in the province of Fārs.

  • BISHOP, ISABELLA L.

    cross-reference

    See BIRD, ISABELLA L.

  • BISOTUN

    Multiple Authors

    (Bīsetūn, Bīstūn, Behistun), the modern name of a cliff rising on the north side of the age-old caravan trail and main military route from Babylon and Baghdad over the Zagros mountains to Hamadān).

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BISOTUN i. Introduction

    R. Schmitt

    Bagistanon (óros). As shown by its name, Bisotun had been holy from time immemorial and Darius’s monument was well known to the ancients.

  • BISOTUN ii. Archeology

    Heinz Luschey

    Although the relief and inscription of Darius on the cliff have made Bīsotūn famous, there are also various other remains in the neighborhood, including some that were discovered or identified only in 1962 and 1963. Some Paleolithic cave finds are the earliest evidence of human presence at the spring-fed pool of Bīsotūn.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BISOTUN iii. Darius's Inscriptions

    R. Schmitt

    Over the millennia all the inscriptions on the rock at Bīsotūn, especially the Babylonian version, have suffered severe damage from erosion by rain and drifting sand and from seasonal torrents. Calcareous deposits on the engraved cuneiform characters caused by water seepage have obscured several passages, but have also preserved them from weathering.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BĪSOTŪN, ABŪ MANṢŪR

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    b. Vošmgīr, ẒAHĪR-AL-DAWLA,  Ziyarid amir in Ṭabarestān and Gorgān (r. 967-78). Much of his reign was spent in fending off Samanid claims to sovereignty over the Caspian provinces.

  • BĪSTGĀNĪ

    Ḡolām-Ḥosayn Yūsofī

    Persian term for pay and rations of troops used in classical texts, corresponding to Arabic ʿešrīnīya.

  • BĪT BUNAKKI

    Louis D. Levine

    (or Bīt Burnakki/Purnakki), the name of an Elamite border city mentioned frequently in the eighth and seventh centuries in neo-Assyrian texts.

  • BĪT HAMBAN

    Louis D. Levine

    (also Bīt Habban), a district on the Iranian-Iraqi frontier which appears in Akkadian cuneiform sources after the fall of the Kassite dynasty (1157 B.C.) and disappears with the fall of the Assyrian empire in 612 B.C.

  • BĪT RAMATIYA

    Louis D. Levine

    a place name and personal name associated with Media in Asyrian sources.

  • BĪTĀB, ʿABD-AL-ḤAQQ

    Nāṣer Amīrī

    b. Mollā ʿAbd-al-Aḥmad ʿAṭṭār, scholar and poet laureate (malek al-šoʿarāʾ) of Afghanistan (1883-1968).

  • BĪṬARAF

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (The impartial), a news and political affairs journal published in Persian and French in Tehran (1913-14).

  • BĪŽAN

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    in the traditional history, son of Gīv by Rostam’s daughter Bānū Gošasp; he figures prominently in the Šāh-nāma as a hero in Kay Ḵosrow’s reign.

  • BĪŽAN-NAMA

    William Hanaway, Jr.

    an epic poem of about 1,900 lines relating the adventures of the legendary hero Bīžan son of Gīv.

  • BLACK SEA

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    an almost entirely landlocked sea (lat 40°55’ to 46°32’ N, long 27°27’ to 41°42’ E). Its surface is more than 423,000 km2, and its maximum depth is 2,244 m. In this article only the Achaemenid period is considered.

  • BLACK SHEEP DYNASTY

    Forthcoming

    Forthcoming online.

  • BLEEDING

    Cross-Reference

    See BLOODLETTING.

  • BLOCHET (Gabriel Joseph) EDGARD

    Francis Richard

    French orientalist (1870-1937). His published works include editions and catalogues of manuscripts in Arabic and Turkish, but his main focus was the Iranian world.

  • BLOCHMANN, HEINRICH FERDINAND

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (also Henry), a German orientalist and scholar of Persian language and literature who spent most of his career in India (1838-1878).

  • BLOOD TRANSFUSION SERVICES IN IRAN

    Ali Ameri

    A centralized, state-funded organization was established in 1974 for the recruitment of safe, voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors and the subsequent collection, testing, processing, and distribution of blood and blood products to hospitals.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BLOODLETTING

    Willem Floor

    (Ar.-Pers. ḥejāmat, faṣd; Pers. ragzanī, ḵūn gereftan), a common medical treatment throughout Iranian history, though applied only in exceptional circumstances by modern medical practi­tioners.

  • BOAR

    Paul Joslin

    (Sus scrofa, Pers. gorāz). The wild boar is found in a broad cross-section of habitats and has a range that extends over much of Europe and Asia.

  • BOARD GAMES in pre-Islamic Persia

    Ulrich Schädler and Anne-Elizabeth Dunn-Vaturi

    include the games of chess and backgammon. our knowledge of other board games remains scanty. The study of ancient games relies on archeological material which is supplemented by data from epigraphic and iconographic sources, and direct evidence is lacking in most cases.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • BOČĀQČĪ

    Pierre Oberling

    a Turkic tribe of Sīrjān in Kermān province.

  • BODHISATTVA

    Werner Sundermann

    in the Middle Iranian languages. The Sanskrit word Bodhisat(t)va, literally a being (blessed with) understanding, designates someone des­tined for Buddhahood later in life or in a future existence.