Table of Contents

  • BĀḴARZĪ, ABU’L-QĀSEM ʿALĪ

    Z. Safa

    Iranian littérateur of the 11th century who composed poems in both Persian and Arabic, notable in the art of letter-writing (tarassol).

  • BAKHSHIEV MISHI

    M. Zand

    (1910-1972), Judeo-Tat author.

  • BAḴŠĪ

    P. Jackson

    a Buddhist lama or scholar, in particular during Mongol hegemony in Iran; subsequently, by extension, any kind of scribe or secretary.

  • BAḴT

    W. Eilers, S. Shaked

    “fate, destiny,” often with the positive sense of “good luck” (ḵᵛošbaḵtī).  i. The term.  ii. The concept.

  • BAḴTAGĀN LAKE

    E. Ehlers

    part of the Lake Nīrīz basin situated about 1,525 m above sea level in the province of Fārs, approximately 50 km east of Shiraz.  At present, it is common to divide the basin of the Nīrīz into a northern portion (daryāča-ye Ṭašk) and a larger southern part (daryāča-ye Baḵtagān).

  • BAḴTAK

    F. Gaffary

    a folkloric she-creature of horrible shape, personifying a nightmare. Baḵtak resembles the Āl, another “female devil” of Iranian folklore.

  • BĀḴTAR (1)

    A. Tafażżolī

    designation of the geographical “west” in Modern Persian, but its Pahlavi equivalent abāxtar means “north,” probably borrowed from Parthian.

  • BĀḴTAR (2)

    N. Parvīn

    name of an educational magazine (Isfahan, 1933-35) and a political newspaper (Isfahan and Tehran, 1935-45).

  • BĀḴTAR-E EMRŪZ

    ʿA. M. Š. Fāṭemī

    (Today’s West), daily evening newspaper published in Tehran, 1949-53. The editor-publisher Ḥosayn Fāṭemī (1917-1954) was one of the principal associates of Dr. Moḥammad Moṣaddeq in the National Front (Jebha-ye Mellī).

  • BAḴTĀVAR KHAN, MOḤAMMAD

    S. S. Alvi

    (1620?-85), historian and official at the court of the Mughal emperor Awrangzēb (r. 1658-1707) and a patron of literature.

  • BAḴTĪĀR, ABŪ ḤARB

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    B. MOḤAMMAD, the patron of the poet Manūčehrī (d. 1040-41) who praised his bravery, nobility, magnanimity, learning, and eloquence.

  • BAḴTĪĀR, TEYMŪR

    S. Zabih

    (1914-1970), Iranian general. His meteoric rise to power began after the fall of Moṣaddeq in August, 1953, when he was called to Tehran, promoted to brigadier general, and put in charge of Tehran’s military governorship.

  • BAḴTĪĀR-NĀMA

    W. L. Hanaway, Jr.

    an example of early New Persian prose fiction in the form of a frame story and nine included tales, the earliest version of which seems to be from the late 12th-early 13th centuries.

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ (1)

    ʿA.-A. Saʿīdī Sīrjānī, J.-P. Digard, ʿA.-Ḥ. Navāʾī

    the nesba of a number of Baḵtīārī chiefs.

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ (2)

    cross-reference

    in music, a gūša. See HOMĀYŪN.

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ MOUNTAINS

    E. Ehlers

    The impressive basin-range-structure of the Baḵtīārī mountains, a result of the geological development of the Zagros system since late Cretaceous time and culminating in the orogenesis of Tertiary upfolding, is accentuated by the complicated and unique drainage system, which itself is the result of geology and topography.

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  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ TRIBE

    J.-P. Digard, G. L. Windfuhr, A. Ittig

    The traditional Baḵtīārī way of life is typical of the long-distance nomadism which evolved in the Zagros highlands from the thirteenth century onward, at first under the impact of the Mongol invasions, probably attaining its present form during the eighteenth century, in a defensive reaction against increasing fiscal and administrative pressures experienced under successive Iranian régimes.

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  • BAḴTĪĀRĪS of AFGHANISTAN

    D. Balland

    two small Paṧtō-speaking groups in the eastern part of the Irano-Afghan area bearing the name Baḵtīārī or Baḵtīār.

  • BAKTOḠDĪ

    cross-reference

    See BEKTOḠDĪ.

  • BAKU

    S. Soucek, R. G. Suny

    (Pers. Bādkūba), capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan and one of the chief ports on the Caspian sea.