Table of Contents

  • BĀḴTAR (2)

    N. Parvīn

    name of an educational magazine (Isfahan, 1933-35) and a political newspaper (Isfahan and Tehran, 1935-45).

  • BĀḴTAR-E EMRŪZ

    ʿA. M. Š. Fāṭemī

    (Today’s West), daily evening newspaper published in Tehran, 1949-53. The editor-publisher Ḥosayn Fāṭemī (1917-1954) was one of the principal associates of Dr. Moḥammad Moṣaddeq in the National Front (Jebha-ye Mellī).

  • BAḴTĀVAR KHAN, MOḤAMMAD

    S. S. Alvi

    (1620?-85), historian and official at the court of the Mughal emperor Awrangzēb (r. 1658-1707) and a patron of literature.

  • BAḴTĪĀR, ABŪ ḤARB

    M. Dabīrsīāqī

    B. MOḤAMMAD, the patron of the poet Manūčehrī (d. 1040-41) who praised his bravery, nobility, magnanimity, learning, and eloquence.

  • BAḴTĪĀR, TEYMŪR

    S. Zabih

    (1914-1970), Iranian general. His meteoric rise to power began after the fall of Moṣaddeq in August, 1953, when he was called to Tehran, promoted to brigadier general, and put in charge of Tehran’s military governorship.

  • BAḴTĪĀR-NĀMA

    W. L. Hanaway, Jr.

    an example of early New Persian prose fiction in the form of a frame story and nine included tales, the earliest version of which seems to be from the late 12th-early 13th centuries.

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ (1)

    ʿA.-A. Saʿīdī Sīrjānī, J.-P. Digard, ʿA.-Ḥ. Navāʾī

    the nesba of a number of Baḵtīārī chiefs in the 18th-20th centuries.

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ (2)

    cross-reference

    in music, a gūša. See HOMĀYŪN.

  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ MOUNTAINS

    E. Ehlers

    The impressive basin-range-structure of the Baḵtīārī mountains, a result of the geological development of the Zagros system since late Cretaceous time and culminating in the orogenesis of Tertiary upfolding, is accentuated by the complicated and unique drainage system, which itself is the result of geology and topography.

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  • BAḴTĪĀRĪ TRIBE

    J.-P. Digard, G. L. Windfuhr, A. Ittig

    The traditional Baḵtīārī way of life is typical of the long-distance nomadism which evolved in the Zagros highlands from the thirteenth century onward, at first under the impact of the Mongol invasions, probably attaining its present form during the eighteenth century, in a defensive reaction against increasing fiscal and administrative pressures experienced under successive Iranian régimes.

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  • BAḴTĪĀRĪS of AFGHANISTAN

    D. Balland

    two small Paṧtō-speaking groups in the eastern part of the Irano-Afghan area bearing the name Baḵtīārī or Baḵtīār.

  • BAKTOḠDĪ

    cross-reference

    See BEKTOḠDĪ.

  • BAKU

    S. Soucek, R. G. Suny

    (Pers. Bādkūba), capital city of the Republic of Azerbaijan and one of the chief ports on the Caspian sea.

  • BAKWĀ, DAŠT-E

    D. Balland

    an extensive piedmont alluvial plain in the southwest of Afghanistan, drained by one of the Sīstān rivers, the Ḵospāsrūd. In past times it enjoyed a measure of prosperity based on qanāt irrigation.

  • BĀLĀBĀN

    Ch. Albright

    a cylindrical-bore, double-reed wind instrument about 35 cm long with seven finger holes and one thumb hole, played in eastern Azerbaijan in Iran and in the Republic of Azerbaijan.

  • BALADĪYA

    N. Parvīn

    (Municipality), the name or part of the name of several newspapers and journals published in Iran and Afghanistan ca. 1907-39.

  • BALĀḎORĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    , ABU’L-ḤASAN or ABŪ BAKR AḤMAD B. YAḤYĀ B. JĀBER, leading Arab historian of the 9th century, whose Ketāb fotūḥ al-boldān, in particular, contains much original information on the Arab conquests of Iran.

  • BALĀḠAT

    J. T. P. de Bruijn

    (Ar. balāḡa), one of the most general terms to denote eloquence in speech and writing. The branches of literary criticism which developed within Muslim civilization became known collectively as the science (ʿelm) or art (ṣenāʿa) of balāḡat.

  • BALĀḠĪ, MOḤAMMAD-JAWĀD

    E. Kohlberg

    B. ḤASAN B. ṬĀLEB B. ʿABBĀS RABAʿĪ NAJAFĪ (d. 1933), Imami author, poet, and polemicist.

  • BALʿAMĪ, ABŪ ʿALĪ MOḤAMMAD

    cross-reference

    B. MOḤAMMAD. See AMĪRAK BALʿAMĪ.