Table of Contents

  • ARMY v. Pahlavi Period

    M. J. Sheikh-ol-Islami

    While few foreign officers were employed, many cadets were sent abroad, mainly to French military academies. Consequently, the nascent military institutions were highly influenced by the style and organization which were prevalent in France.

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  • ARMY vi. In Afghanistan from 1919

    L. Dupree

    Using Turkish advisers, Amānallāh Khan (r. 1919-29)  unsuccessfully tried to create a nationalist-oriented army.

  • ARNAVĀZ

    A. Sh. Shahbazi

    one of the mythical king Jamšēd’s sisters.

  • ARNOLD, THOMAS WALKER

    B. W. Robinson

    , Sir (1864-1930), British orientalist.

  • ARPA KHAN

    P. Jackson

    10th Il-khan of Iran (r. 736/1335-36).

  • ARRAJĀN

    H. Gaube

    medieval city and province in southwestern Iran between Ḵūzestān and Fārs.

  • ARRĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    a region of eastern Transcaucasia.

  • ARRIAN

    M. L. Chaumont

    Greek historian (2nd cent. A.D.).

  • ARROWS in Eastern Iran

    Boris A. Litvinsky

    came in use along with the bow, and the two developed in parallel. In the Bronze Age in eastern Iran, metal arrowheads of bronze were widespread, while skillfully made stone arrowheads, inherited from the earlier period, remained in use. 

  • ARSACIDS

    Multiple Authors

    (Persian Aškānīān), Parthian dynasty which ruled Iran from about 250 B.C. to about 226 A.D. About the end of the fourth or at the latest by the middle of the third century B.C. the Parni had advanced as far as the frontiers of the Seleucid kingdom, whether in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea or on the river Tejen (Turkmenistan).

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