Table of Contents

  • ABŪ DOLAF ʿEJLĪ

    F. M. Donner

    Arab military chieftain, author, poet, governor, and boon companion for several ʿAbbasid caliphs, and most important member of the ʿEǰlī dynasty of western Iran, flourished in the early 3rd/9th century.

  • ABŪ ʿEKREMA

    D. M. Dunlop

    a freedman of Banū Ḥamdān, regarded as the first ʿAbbasid propagandist in Khorasan.

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ AL-ŠĪRĀZĪ

    W. Madelung

    Shafeʿite jurist, b. 393/1003 in Fīrūzābād in Fār.

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ AṬʿEMA

    Cross-Reference

    (d. 1420s) satirical poet who used Persian culinary vocabulary and imagery and kitchen terminology to create a novel style of poetry. See BOSḤĀQ AṬʿEMA.

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ EBRĀHĪM

    C. E. Bosworth

    governor of Ḡazna in eastern Afghanistan on behalf of the Samanids (352/963-355/966).

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ ĪNJŪ

    J. W. Limbert

    (721-58/1321-59), ruler of Fārs, ʿErāq ʿAǰam (Isfahan), and parts of southern Iran, 743-55/1343-54.

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ KĀZARŪNĪ

    B. Lawrence

    Sufi and eponymous founder of the Kāzarūnīya/Esḥāqīya order.

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ NAẒẒĀM

    J. van Ess

    famous adīb and Muʿtazilite theologian.

  • ABŪ ESḤĀQ ŠĀMĪ

    Mutiul Imam

    founder and eminent early saint of the Češtī order (3rd-4th/9th-10th century).

  • ABŪ ḤAFṢ ḤADDĀD

    J. Chabbi

    an ascetic who was born and lived in Nīšāpūr, d. between 265/874 and 270/879.

  • ABŪ ḤAFṢ SOḠDĪ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    one of the so-called “first poets” in New Persian.

  • ABŪ ḤĀMED TORKA

    Fazlur Rahman

    scholar and author of the late 7th/13th and early 8th/14th centuries, the first in a line of prominent men of the Torka-ye Eṣfahānī family.

  • ABŪ ḤAMZA ḴORĀSĀNĪ

    B. Reinert

    (d. 290/903), Sufi born and active in Nīšāpūr.

  • ABŪ ḤANĪFA

    U. F. ʿAbd-Allāh

    (80-150/699-767), eponym of the Ḥanafī school of Islamic law—the largest of the four primary Sunni schools of law

  • ABŪ ḤANĪFA ESKĀFĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ESKĀFĪ, ABŪ ḤANĪFA.

  • ABŪ HĀŠEM ʿABDALLĀH

    T. Nagel

     ʿAlid figure in Shiʿite tradition.

  • ABŪ ḤĀTEM RĀZĪ

    H. Halm

    Ismaʿili dāʿī (missionary) and author of the 4th/10th century.

  • ABŪ ḤAYYĀN TAWḤĪDĪ

    W. M. Watt

    an outstanding man of letters and essayist of the Buyid period.

  • ABŪ ʿĪSĀ EṢFAHĀNĪ

    J. Lassner

    founder of the ʿĪsāwīya, an obscure Jewish sect in Islamic times.

  • ABŪ ʿĪSĀ WARRĀQ

    W. M. Watt

    heretical theologian of the 3rd/9th century.

  • ABŪ JAʿFAR B. AḤMAD

    D. Pingree

    mid- to late 3rd/9th century astronomer, son of a famous astronomer from Marv.

  • ABŪ JAʿFAR ḴĀZEN

    D. Pingree

    astronomer (ca. 287/900-probably 360/970).

  • ABŪ ḴĀLĪJĀR ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MARZBĀN

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿEMĀD-AL-DĪN MARZBĀN.

  • ABŪ KĀLĪJĀR GARŠĀSP (I)

    C. E. Bosworth

    second son of the Kakuyid amir of Jebāl, ʿAlāʾ-al-dawla Moḥammad b. Došmanzīār, ruled in Hamadān and parts of what are now Kurdistan and Luristan, 433-37/1041-42 to 1045, d. 443/1051-52.

  • ABŪ KĀLĪJĀR GARŠĀSP (II)

    C. E. Bosworth

    member of the Dailamite dynasty of the Kakuyids (d. 536/1141?).

  • ABŪ LOʾLOʾA

    Ch. Pellat

    a Persian slave of Moḡīra b. Šoʿba, the governor of Baṣra, who assassinated the caliph ʿOmar b. al-Ḵaṭṭāb, on Wednesday, 26 Ḏu’l-ḥeǰǰa 23/2 November 644.

  • ABŪ MANṢŪR ʿABD-AL-RAZZĀQ

    Dj. Khaleghi-Motlagh

    dehqān (landowner) of Ṭūs, official under the Samanids, and patron of a lost prose Šāh-nāma (Šāh-nāma-ye Abū Manṣūrī).

  • ABŪ MANṢŪR FARĀMARZ

    C. E. Bosworth

    eldest son of the Kakuyid amir of Jebāl, ʿAlāʾ-al-dawla Moḥammad b. Došmanzīār.

  • ABŪ MANṢŪR HERAVĪ

    L. Richter-Bernburg

    (fl. ca. 370-80/980-90), author of the oldest preserved Persian text on materia medicaKetāb al-abnīa ʿan ḥaqāʾeq al-adwīa.

  • ABŪ MANṢŪR MAʿMARĪ

    Dj. Khalegi-Motlagh

    minister (dastūr) of Abū Manṣūr b. ʿAbd-al-Razzāq (d. 350/961), a military commander of Khorasan under the Samanids.

  • ABŪ MANṢŪR ṬŪSĪ

    D. Pingree

    mathematician.

  • ABŪ MAʿŠAR

    D. Pingree

    astronomer and astrologer, born in Balḵ on 20 Ṣafar 171/10 August 787. 

  • ABŪ MOSLEM EṢFAHĀNĪ

    Wilferd Madelung

    secretary, official, man of letters, and Muʿtazilite Koran commentator, b. 254/868, probably in Isfahan.

  • ABŪ MOSLEM ḴORĀSĀNĪ

    Ḡ. Ḥ. Yūsofī

    prominent leader in the ʿAbbasid cause. 

  • ABŪ MOṬĪʿ AL-BALḴĪ

    L. A. Giffen

    faqīh, judge, and traditionist, disciple of Abū Ḥanīfa, died 183/799 in Balḵ.

  • ABU MUSĀ i - ii

    E. Ehlers

    island in the Persian Gulf.

  • ABU MUSĀ iii

    Guive Mirfendereski

    (Bu Musā), a small island in the eastern Persian Gulf (25°52′ N, 55°2′ E).

  • ABŪ MŪSĀ AŠʿARĪ

    G. R. Hawting

    a Companion of the Prophet and important participant in the troubles which occupied the caliphate of ʿAlī. 

  • ABŪ MŪSĀ MORDĀR

    J. van Ess

    theologian and ascetic, early representative of the Baghdad branch of the Moʿtazela (d. 226/840-41).

  • ABŪ NAṢR AḤMAD

    C. E. Bosworth

    Samanid amir in Transoxania and Khorasan (295-301/907-14).

  • ABŪ NAṢR AL-ESMĀʿĪLĪ

    W. M. Watt

    an alleged teacher of Abū Ḥāmed Ḡazālī (450-505/1058-1111).

  • ABŪ NAṢR FĀMĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    (472-546/1079-1151), local historian of Herat in the Saljuq period.

  • ABŪ NAṢR FĀRĀBĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See FĀRĀBĪ, ABŪ NAṢR.

  • ABŪ NAṢR FĀRSĪ

    C. E. Bosworth

    Official, soldier and poet of the Ghaznavid empire, flourished in the second half of the 5th/11th century during the reigns of the sultans Ebrāhīm b. Masʿūd I and Masʿūd III b. Ebrāhīm.

  • ABŪ NAṢR MANṢŪR

    D. Pingree

    mathematician and astronomer, born probably in Gīlān about 349/960.

  • ABŪ NAṢR MOŠKĀN

    H. Moayyad

    head of the Ghaznavid chancery under Maḥmūd and Masʿūd from 401/1011-12 till his death in 431/1039-40.

  • ABŪ NAṢR MOSTAWFĪ

    K. A. Luther

    well-known official of the Saljuqs of Iraq.

  • ABŪ NAṢR ʿOTBĪ

    Cross-Reference

    See ʿOTBĪ, ABŪ NAṢR.

  • ABŪ NOʿAYM AL-EṢFAHĀNĪ

    W. Madelung

    famous traditionist and author of the collection of Sufi biographies Ḥelyat al-awlīāʾ.

  • ABŪ ʿOBAYDA MAʿMAR

    C. E. Bosworth

    Arabic philologist and grammarian (probably 110-209/728-824, but the sources have other, slightly different dates).