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    the name generally known in the West for the prophet of ancient Iran, whose transformation of his inherited religion inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Iran up until the triumph of Islam. See ZOROASTER.


    Rüdiger Schmitt

    legendary Saka queen during the reign of the likewise legendary Median king Astibaras.

  • ZARIRI, ʿAbbās

    Jalil Doostkhah

    (b. Isfahan 1909; d. Isfahan 1971) noted story-teller (naqqāl). Zariri like most other eulogists of his era, was functionally illiterate. He memorized and recited whatever he heard from other storytellers and scroll-writers. However, he became literate towards the end of his life.


    Erik Naḵjavāni

    the stage name of Moluk Faršforuš Kāšāni (b. Kāšān, ca 1289 Š./1910; d. Tehran, 1378 Š./1999), Persian singer and actress. Moluk was born into a musically inclined family.


    Natalia Ananjeva

    (1859-1919), prominent zoologist and explorer of fauna in Iran. Between 1884 and 1904, he conducted field trips in the Caspian region, the plains of Bukhara, the Khiva (Ḵiva) oasis, and northern and eastern Persia. More than 130 species of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, arthropods, and mollusks were named after him.

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  • ZĀYANDARUD newspaper

    Nassereddin Parvin

    weekly newspaper published in Isfahan by ʿAbd-al-Ḥosayn Mo ʿin-al-Eslām Ḵᵛānsāri from 1 RabiʿI 1327 to 22 Ḏu’l-ḥejja 1333 (23 March 1909 to 31 October 1915).


    Enrico G. Raffaelli

    Middle Persian term meaning "birth chart, horoscope."



    a history written in 11th century by Gardizi. See GARDIZI


    Multiple Authors

    mountainous district and village northeast of Isfahan, best known for its dialect.  This article is divided into two sections: i. The district   ii. The dialect

  • ZEFRA i. The District

    Mohammad-Hasan Raja’i Zefra’i and Habib Borjian

    mountainous district and village northeast of Isfahan. Historical documents have little mention of Zefra.  Nevertheless the village is embellished with a fine congregational mosque from the Saljuq era with subsequent renovations; the mosque’s antique gate and pulpit are dated 790/1388 and 791/1389, respectively.

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