Table of Contents

  • ZODIAC

    Antonio Panaino

    The origin and development of the idea of a zodiacal circle have been much debated, but now there is a general consensus that a kind of zodiacal belt must have been defined by Babylonian astronomers as early as 700 BCE. In this period the “path” followed by the planets, sun, and moon was divided into 15 constellations.

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  • ẒOHUR-AL-ḤAQQ

    Moojan Momen

    (also called Tāriḵ-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq and Ketāb-e Ẓohur-al-Ḥaqq) the most comprehensive history of the first century of the Bahai faith yet written, compiled in nine volumes by Mirzā Asad-Allāh,

  • ZOROASTER

    Multiple Authors

    the name generally known in the West for the prophet of ancient Iran, whose transformation of his inherited religion inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Iran up until the triumph of Islam. 

  • ZOROASTER i. THE NAME

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    The authentic form of Zoroaster’s name is that attested in his own songs, the Gathas: Old Av. Zaraθuštra-, on which are based regular derivatives like zaraθuštri- “descending from Zoroaster."

  • ZOROASTER ii. GENERAL SURVEY

    W. W. Malandra

    “Zoroaster” is the name generally known in the West for the prophet of ancient Iran, whose transformation of his inherited religion inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Iran up until the triumph of Islam.

  • ZOROASTER iii. ZOROASTER IN THE AVESTA

    Manfred Hutter

    Zaraθuštra is considered the founder of the Mazdayasnian religion who lived in Eastern Iran during the end of the second millenium BCE.

  • ZOROASTER iv. In the Pahlavi Books

    A. V. Williams

    Although Pahlavi was spoken as long ago as the 3rd century BCE, most of the written works that survive were compiled from older Zoroastrian material in the period after the Muslim conquest up to the 10th century CE.

  • ZOROASTER v. AS PERCEIVED BY THE GREEKS

    Roger Beck

    The Greek constructions of Zoroaster relate to the historical Zoroaster and to the Zoroaster of the Zoroastrian faith in one respect only. The Greeks knew that Zoroaster was the “prophet,” in the sense of the human founder, of the national Persian religion of their times.

  • ZOROASTER vi. AS PERCEIVED IN WESTERN EUROPE

    Michael Stausberg

    There is a continuous tradition of reports about Zoroaster among early and later medieval Christian historians, chroniclers, and annalists. In slightly modified form, this tradition continues through the early modern periods stretching from Humanism to Enlightenment.

  • ZOROASTER vii. AS PERCEIVED BY LATER ZOROASTRIANS

    Jenny Rose

    This entry treats the development of the concept and image of Zoroaster among the Zoroastrians of Persia and India after the Islamic conquest (10th century onwards).

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