Table of Contents

  • TIŠTRYA

    Antonio Panaino

    (Pahl. Tištar, NPers. Teštar), an important Old Iranian astral divine being (yazata-), to whom the eighth hymn (Tištar Yašt) of the Later Avestan corpus was dedicated (Panaino, 1990).

  • TOBACCO

    Willem Floor

    Modes of use, cultivation, and cultural connotations of Tobacco in Iran. Persian sources imply that the use of tobacco was already known in Persia before its introduction into Europe in the 1550s.

  • TOḤFAT AL-AḤBĀB

    Solomon Bayevsky

    (Gift for friends), a Persian dictionary of the early Safavid period, compiled by Ḥāfeẓ Solṭān-ʿAli Owbahi Heravi in 936/1529-30.

  • TOḤFAT AL-SAʿĀDA

    Solomon Bayevsky

    An early 16th-century Persian dictionary of 14,000 entries by Maḥmud b. Shaikh Żiāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad, a poet of northern India.

  • TONB ISLANDS

    Guive Mirfendereski

    (GREATER and LESSER), two tiny islands of arguable strategic importance in the eastern Persian Gulf, south of the western tip of Qešm island.

  • TOPKAPI PALACE

    Zeren Tanındı

    and its Persian holdings. The Topkapı Palace, which was known as the Yeni Saray (New Palace) until the 19th century, served the Ottoman sultans for almost 380 years as the imperial residence and center of command.

  • TRAJAN

    Erich Kettenhofen

    Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Roman emperor (98-117 CE), born probably in 53 CE, and died in early August 117. During his reign, the Imperium Romanum stretched to its widest extent, but only for a short period.

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  • TREE

    Cross-Reference

    See DERAḴT.

  • ṬUBĀ VA MAʿNĀ-YE ŠAB

    Houra Yavari

    novel (1987) by Shahrnush Parsipur, fiction writer and essayist, generally regarded as one the first instances of magical realism in modern Iran. The novel’s creative use of magical realism is colored by a distinctly mystical tone and has borrowed much of its flavor from Iran’s Illuminationist Philosophy.

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  • TUMANSKIǏ, Aleksandr Grigor’evich

    Jahangir Dorri

    (1861-1920), Russian orientalist, major-general of the Russian Imperial Army. He belonged to an ancient aristocratic family which had originated from the Great Duchy of Lithuania.

  • TUP

    F. Farrokh

    (tr. by Fariydoun Farrokh as The Cannon, Washington D. C., 2009), the first full-length novel by Gholam-Hosayn Sa’edi.

  • ṬURĀN

    C. E. Bosworth

    (ṬOVARĀN), the mediaeval Islamic name for the mountainous district of east-central Baluchistan lying to the north of the mediaeval coastal region of Makrān, what was in recent centuries, until 1947, the Aḥmadzay Khanate of Kalat.

  • TURFAN EXPEDITIONS

    Werner Sundermann

    Turfan (also Uigur Turpan, Chin. Tulufan) in Xinjiang (Chinese Turkestan) is the largest oasis (ca. 170 square kilometers) on the ancient northern Silk Road.

  • TURKEY

    Cross-Reference

    See BŪQALAMŪN.

  • TURKIC LANGUAGES OF PERSIA: AN OVERVIEW

    Michael Knüppel

    Only in few other regions (Caucasus and Southern Siberia) one can find a nearly comparable diversity of Turkic languages as in Persia. The number of their speakers varies from several thousands to several millions.

  • TURKIC LOANWORDS IN PERSIAN

    Michael Knüppel

    Turkic-Iranian language contacts, as well as reciprocal loaning/borrowing of words, go back to the era of the Old Turkic language. 

  • TURKIC-IRANIAN CONTACTS i. LINGUISTIC CONTACTS

    John R. Perry

    Speakers of Iranian and Turkic languages have been in contact since pre-Islamic times, notably along the Inner Asian commercial corridors known collectively as the Silk Road.

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  • TURKIC-IRANIAN CONTACTS ii. CHAGHATAY

    Andras J. E. Bodrogligeti

    Chaghatay has been strongly influenced by Islamic prestige languages, especially Persian and Arabic, in all segments: phonetics, morphology, syntax, vocabulary, and cultural content. In the hands of the educated elite it became a tool wielded impressively to create exquisite literary works that won the admiration of contemporary Iranian and Arab men of letters.

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  • TURKMENS OF PERSIA ii. LANGUAGE

    Michael Knüppel

    Geographical location and the “tribal affiliation” of the speakers form the background of the dialectal variety. The dialects of Turkmen are spoken in their respective areas, where the members of the corresponding “tribes” live. For example, the Sarık dialect is spoken in Turkmenistan, as well as in Persia and Afghanistan.

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  • TURKO-SOGDIAN COINAGE

    Larissa Baratova

    issues of the khaqans (ḵāqāns) of the Western Turkic khanate in Central Asia between the 6th and 8th centuries CE, so called because the Turkic rulers issued them with Sogdian inscriptions.