Table of Contents

  • TERKEN ḴĀTUN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    title of the wife of the Khwarazmshah Tekiš b. Il-Arslān (r. 1172-1200) and mother of ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad (r. 1200-20).

  • TETRADRACHM

    Cross-Reference

    “four drachmas,” or stater, a denomination of silver coinage; see DIRHAM.

  • TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN IRAN

    Willem Floor

    Textile production in Iran dates back to the 10th millennium BCE. The first European-style factories in Persia were established in the 1850s and were among the first establishments in the country to use modern technology.

  • THAILAND-IRAN RELATIONS

    M. Ismail Marcinkowski

    Iran’s cultural and trade relations with Southeast Asia date back far into the pre-Islamic period. Official diplomatic relations between the two regions become traceable only during the Safavid period (1501-1722).

  • THEOPHYLACT SIMOCATTA

    Michael Whitby

    Greek historian and author of Histories, a work mainly concerned with late sixth-century Byzantine warfare in the Balkans and against Persia.

  • TIGER

    Cross-Reference

    See BABR.

  • TIGRAN II

    N. Garsoian

    THE GREAT, king of Armenia (r. 95-55 BCE),  the most distinguished member of the so-called Artašēsid/Artaxiad dynasty.

  • TIGRIS RIVER

    Daniel T. Potts

    major river arising in the Taurus mountains of eastern Turkey, fed mainly by snow melt, which flows about 2,032 km through eastern Turkey and Iraq to the Persian Gulf.

  • TILLA BULAK

    Kai Kaniuth

    The site’s stratigraphy is marked by two main building horizons, of which the earlier one was destroyed in a conflagration that apparently engulfed the entire hamlet. From rooms of this phase, complete household inventories have been recovered which will be of enormous help in understanding the rural economic system.

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  • TIŠTRYA

    Antonio Panaino

    (Pahl. Tištar, NPers. Teštar), an important Old Iranian astral divine being (yazata-), to whom the eighth hymn (Tištar Yašt) of the Later Avestan corpus was dedicated (Panaino, 1990).

  • TOBACCO

    Willem Floor

    Modes of use, cultivation, and cultural connotations of Tobacco in Iran. Persian sources imply that the use of tobacco was already known in Persia before its introduction into Europe in the 1550s.

  • TOCHARIAN LANGUAGE

    Michaël Peyrot

    the conventional name for two closely related Indo-European languages that were spoken in northwest China, in the north of the Tarim Basin in present-day Xīnjiāng.

  • TOḠA TIMUR

    Peter Jackson

    (1336-1353), the last of the Mongol Il-Khans of Iran.

  • TOḤFAT AL-AḤBĀB

    Solomon Bayevsky

    (Gift for friends), a Persian dictionary of the early Safavid period, compiled by Ḥāfeẓ Solṭān-ʿAli Owbahi Heravi in 936/1529-30.

  • TOḤFAT AL-SAʿĀDA

    Solomon Bayevsky

    An early 16th-century Persian dictionary of 14,000 entries by Maḥmud b. Shaikh Żiāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad, a poet of northern India.

  • TONB ISLANDS

    Guive Mirfendereski

    (GREATER and LESSER), two tiny islands of arguable strategic importance in the eastern Persian Gulf, south of the western tip of Qešm island.

  • TOPKAPI PALACE

    Zeren Tanındı

    and its Persian holdings. The Topkapı Palace, which was known as the Yeni Saray (New Palace) until the 19th century, served the Ottoman sultans for almost 380 years as the imperial residence and center of command.

  • TORTURE IN THE ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Bruno Jacobs

    Torture is here taken as defined in the United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), Art. 1.1.

  • TOWFIQ (TAWFIQ) NEWSPAPER

    Hasan Javadi

    a satirical and political weekly newspaper published intermittently in Tehran between 1923 and 1971.

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  • TOYUL

    Cross-Reference

    one of the terms for “land grant.” See EQṬĀʿ.