Table of Contents

  • ʿOLAMĀ-YE ESLĀM

    Siamak Adhami

    “The Doctors of Islam,” title given to two medieval Zoroastrian polemical treatises written in Modern Persian.

  • OLEARIUS, ADAM

    Christoph Werner

    (1599-1671), German author, secretary to the Holstein mission to Persia (1635-39), noted for the detailed account of his travels in Russia and Persia.

  • OLIVE TREE

    Willem Floor

    (zaytun). The cultivated olive tree (Olea europaea L, Oleaceae) is a long-lived, evergreen tree native to the Mediterranean basin. It is valued for its fruit and oil.

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  • OLSHAUSEN, JUSTUS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (1800-1882), German theologian and Oriental scholar, one of the pioneers of Iranian studies in the German-speaking countries. His most important contribution to Iranian studies is his decipherment of the Pahlavi legends of Late Sasanian coins, by which he became almost a second decipherer of the Pahlavī script after Silvestre de Sacy. 

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  • OMAN, SEA OF

    Willem Floor

    the sea, or gulf, which divides Iran and the Arabian peninsula and forms the link between the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea.

  • ONO, Morio

    Ali Ferdowsi

    (1925-2001), eminent Japanese scholar and Iranologist.

  • ONṢOR AL-MAʿĀLI

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    , KAY KĀVUS b. Eskandar b. Qābus, penultimate prince of the Ziyarid dynasty of Tabaristan (Ṭabarestān) and Gilān, in origin Daylamite, which ruled in the 10th-11th centuries.

  • ʿONṢORI

    EIr

    (ca. 961-1039), celebrated Persian poet of the early Ghaznavid period.

  • OPIUM

    Cross-Reference

    See AFYŪN.

  • OPTICS

    Elaheh Kheirandish

    The science of “aspects” or “appearances” (ʿelm al-manāẓer), as optics was called in the Islamic Middle Ages, has a long and impressive history in both Arabic and Persian.