Table of Contents

  • OAK

    Cross-Reference

    See BALŪṬ.

  • ʿOBAYD ZĀKĀNI

    Daniela Meneghini

    a Persian poet from the Mongol period (d. ca. 770/1370), renowned above all for his satirical poems.

  • OBOLLA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a port of Lower Iraq during the classical and medieval Islamic periods.

  • OḠUZ KHAN NARRATIVES

    İlker Evrım Bınbaş

    The Tāriḵ-e Oḡuz begins with a short genealogical and topographical introduction connecting the family of Oḡuz to that of Japheth, or Öljey/Oljāy Khan, as he is called in the text, and his son Dib Yāwqu Khan, who lived nomadic life around the lakes of Issyk-Kul and Balkhash.

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  • OIL AGREEMENTS IN IRAN

    Parviz Mina

    (1901-1978): their history and evolution. The history of Iranian oil agreements began with an unprecedented concession granted by Nāṣer-al-Din Shah in 1872 to Baron Julius de Reuter.

  • OIL INDUSTRY

    Multiple Authors

    i. Petroleum and its Products. ii. Iran's Oil and Gas Resources

  • OIL INDUSTRY i. PETROLEUM AND ITS PRODUCTS

    A. Badakhshan and F. Najmabadi

    The first requisite for an oil or a gas field is a reservoir: a rock formation porous enough to contain oil or gas and permeable enough to allow their movement through it.

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  • OIL INDUSTRY ii. IRAN’S OIL AND GAS RESOURCES

    A. Badakhshan and F. Najmabadi

    The Iranian oil industry is the oldest in the Middle East. Although the occurrence of numerous seeps in many parts of Iran had been known since the ancient times, the systematic exploration and drilling for oil began in the first years of the 20th century.

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  • OḴOWWAT

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Brotherhood), the name of four newspapers and one magazine published in Tabriz, Rašt, Shiraz, Kermānšāh, and Baghdad in the early 1900s.

  • OKRA

    Cross-Reference

    See BĀMĪA.

  • ʿOLAMĀ-YE ESLĀM

    Siamak Adhami

    “The Doctors of Islam,” title given to two medieval Zoroastrian polemical treatises written in Modern Persian.

  • OLEARIUS, ADAM

    Christoph Werner

    (1599-1671), German author, secretary to the Holstein mission to Persia (1635-39), noted for the detailed account of his travels in Russia and Persia.

  • OLIVE TREE

    Willem Floor

    (zaytun). The cultivated olive tree (Olea europaea L, Oleaceae) is a long-lived, evergreen tree native to the Mediterranean basin. It is valued for its fruit and oil.

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  • OLSHAUSEN, JUSTUS

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    (1800-1882), German theologian and Oriental scholar, one of the pioneers of Iranian studies in the German-speaking countries. His most important contribution to Iranian studies is his decipherment of the Pahlavi legends of Late Sasanian coins, by which he became almost a second decipherer of the Pahlavī script after Silvestre de Sacy. 

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  • OMAN, SEA OF

    Willem Floor

    the sea, or gulf, which divides Iran and the Arabian peninsula and forms the link between the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea.

  • ONO, Morio

    Ali Ferdowsi

    (1925-2001), eminent Japanese scholar and Iranologist.

  • ONṢOR AL-MAʿĀLI

    C. Edmond Bosworth

    , KAY KĀVUS b. Eskandar b. Qābus, penultimate prince of the Ziyarid dynasty of Tabaristan (Ṭabarestān) and Gilān, in origin Daylamite, which ruled in the 10th-11th centuries.

  • ʿONṢORI

    EIr

    (ca. 961-1039), celebrated Persian poet of the early Ghaznavid period.

  • OPIUM

    Cross-Reference

    See AFYŪN.

  • OPTICS

    Elaheh Kheirandish

    The science of “aspects” or “appearances” (ʿelm al-manāẓer), as optics was called in the Islamic Middle Ages, has a long and impressive history in both Arabic and Persian.

  • ORANSKIĬ, IOSIF MIKHAILOVICH

    Ivan Steblin-Kamensky

    It is difficult to name a field of Iranian studies which was not included in Oranskii's studies: history of Iranian studies, history of the teaching of Persian and other Iranian languages, the study of the languages themselves, the development of their grammatical structure, etymology, language contacts, dialectology, ethnology, etc.

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  • ORDUBĀD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a town on the north bank of the middle course of the Araxes (Aras) river of eastern Transcaucasia, former in Persian territory but now in the Republic of Azerbaijan.

  • ʿORFI ŠIRAZI

    Paul Losensky

    Persian poet of the latter half of the 16th century (b. Shiraz, 1555; d. Lahore, Aug. 1591).

  • ORIENTAL INSTITUTE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

    Kamyar Abdi

    a major research center devoted to the study of the history, languages, and archeology of the ancient Near East, and Egypt.

  • ORMURI

    Cross-Reference

    Language spoken by the Ormur or the Baraki. See AFGHANISTAN vii. Parāči.

  • OROITES

    C. J. Brunner

    satrap of Lydia, Phrygia, and Ionia during the reigns of the Achaemenid kings Cyrus II and Cambyses.

  • ORONTES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Old Iranian name, attested only in Greek forms, carried by several personages of the Achaemenid period.

  • OŠNUYA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (now OŠNAVIYA), a small town of southwestern Azerbaijan, on the historic route from the Urmia basin toward the plains of northern Iraq.

  • OSRUŠANA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a district of medieval Islamic Transoxania lying to the east of Samarqand (q.v.) on the upper reaches of the Zarafšān river or Nahr-e Ṣogd.

  • OSSETIC LANGUAGE i. History and description

    Fridrik Thordarson

    According to the 1989 Soviet census, the latest available official source, Ossetic is spoken by about 500,000 people; of these, about 330,000 live in North Ossetia and 125,000 in Georgia. These figures should, however, be regarded with some caution as a large part of the Ossetic population is bilingual, also speaking Kabardian, Ingush, or Karachay-Balkar.

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  • OSSETIC LANGUAGE ii. Ossetic Loanwords in Hungarian

    J.T.L. Cheung

    One of the features of Ossetic is the number of lexical traces that show ancient contacts with many, often very diverse, ethnic groups.

  • OSTANES

    Morton Smith

    legendary mage in classical and medieval literature.

  • OSTOVĀ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    rural district (rostāq) of northern Khorasan, considered in medieval Islamic times to be an administrative dependency of Nišāpur.

  • OTANES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Greek form (Otánēs) of the name OPers. Utāna(DB IV 83 u-t-a-n, rendered as Elam. Hu-ud-da-na, Bab. Ú-mi-it-ta-na-na-ʾ), which often is interpreted as “having good descendants”.

  • ʿOTBI

    C. E. Bosworth

    the family name of two viziers of the Samanids of Transoxiana and Khorasan.

  • ʿOTBI, ABU NAṢR MOḤAMMED

    Ali Anooshahr

    (ca. 961-1036 or 1040), secretary, courtier, and author of the Arabic al-Kitāb al-Yamini, an important dynastic history of the Ghaznavids.

  • OTRĀR

    C. E. Bosworth

    medieval town of Transoxania, in a rural district (rostāq) of the middle Jaxartes River (Syr Darya), apparently known in early Islamic times as Fārāb/Pārāb/Bārāb.

  • OTTOMAN-PERSIAN RELATIONS i. UNDER SULTAN SELIM I AND SHAH ESMĀʿIL I

    Osman G. Özgüdenli

     The dynamics of Ottoman-Safavid relations during these almost contemporaneous reigns (1512-20 and 1501-24, respectively) are closely connected with the general socio-political and socio-religious conditions in Anatolia, Persia, and the border regions between the two empires since the second half of the 15th century.

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  • OTTOMAN-PERSIAN RELATIONS ii. AFSHARID AND ZAND PERIODS

    Ernest Tucker

     At the beginning of the eighteenth century, Ottoman conflicts with European powers overshadowed relations with the Safavids.

  • OUPHARIZES

    R. N. Frye

    (Greek name or appellative Wahriz), general of cavalry in the time of Ḵosrow I.

  • OUSELEY, Gore

    Peter Avery and EIr

    (1770-1884), entrepreneur, diplomat, and orientalist.

  • OUSELEY, William

    Peter Avery and EIr

    (1767-1842), officer and orientalist.

  • OWL

    Cross-Reference

    See BŪF.

  • OXATHRES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Persian masculine name, attested only in Greek forms, borne by several Achaemenid personages.

  • OXUS RIVER

    Cross-Reference

    See ĀMŪ DARYĀ.

  • OXUS TRUMPET

    Bo Lawergren

    Oxus trumpets are shorter (ca. 10 cm in length) than modern trumpets, but like modern ones they have a flaring bell at the front and a mouthpieces at the back. The most common material is silver, but copper, gold, lead, and gypsum are also used. Some are decorated with human and animal faces of high artistic merit.

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  • OXYARTES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Bactrian noble, satrap under Alexander the Great.

  • OXYATHRES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    brother of the Achaemenid Darius III and companion of Alexander the Great.

  • OZAI-DURRANI, ATAULLAH K.

    EIr

    Afghan inventor and developer of fast-cooking rice, marketed under the name “Minute Rice.”

  • ÖZGÄND

    Bertold Spuler

    in the Middle Ages, a thriving city on the eastern edge of the Ferghana basin, on one of the tributaries of the Jaxartes.

  • O~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter O entries.