Table of Contents

  • OPTICS

    Elaheh Kheirandish

    The science of “aspects” or “appearances” (ʿelm al-manāẓer), as optics was called in the Islamic Middle Ages, has a long and impressive history in both Arabic and Persian.

  • ORANSKIĬ, IOSIF MIKHAILOVICH

    Ivan Steblin-Kamensky

    It is difficult to name a field of Iranian studies which was not included in Oranskii's studies: history of Iranian studies, history of the teaching of Persian and other Iranian languages, the study of the languages themselves, the development of their grammatical structure, etymology, language contacts, dialectology, ethnology, etc.

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  • ORDUBĀD

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a town on the north bank of the middle course of the Araxes (Aras) river of eastern Transcaucasia, former in Persian territory but now in the Republic of Azerbaijan.

  • ʿORFI ŠIRAZI

    Paul Losensky

    Persian poet of the latter half of the 16th century (b. Shiraz, 1555; d. Lahore, Aug. 1591).

  • ORIENTAL INSTITUTE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

    Kamyar Abdi

    a major research center devoted to the study of the history, languages, and archeology of the ancient Near East, and Egypt.

  • ORMURI

    Cross-Reference

    Language spoken by the Ormur or the Baraki. See AFGHANISTAN vii. Parāči.

  • OROITES

    C. J. Brunner

    satrap of Lydia, Phrygia, and Ionia during the reigns of the Achaemenid kings Cyrus II and Cambyses.

  • ORONTES

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    Old Iranian name, attested only in Greek forms, carried by several personages of the Achaemenid period.

  • OŠNUYA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    (now OŠNAVIYA), a small town of southwestern Azerbaijan, on the historic route from the Urmia basin toward the plains of northern Iraq.

  • OSRUŠANA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a district of medieval Islamic Transoxania lying to the east of Samarqand (q.v.) on the upper reaches of the Zarafšān river or Nahr-e Ṣogd.