Table of Contents

  • LIGHTING EQUIPMENT AND HEATING FUEL

    Willem Floor

    Before the widespread use of electricity in Iran, the main illuminants were vegetable oils and animal fat.

  • LIME

    Cross-Reference

    a solid, white substance consisting essentially of calcium oxide. See ĀHAK.

  • LION RUGS

    Parviz Tanavoli

    (gabba-ye širi), a group of Persian rugs with the image of the lion as the main motif. The majority of the existing lion rugs are the work of Baḵtiāri and Qašqāʾi tribes in southwest Iran and were woven during the 19th and 20th centuries.

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  • LION TOMBSTONES

    Pedram Khosronejad

    (šir-e sangi or bardšir “stone lion” in Lori), a type of tombstone in the form of a lion, found mostly on the graves of Lor and Qašqāʾi nomads in the west, southwest, and parts of southern Persia. These stylized, sculptured lions stare out from isolated Baḵtiāri graveyards in many valleys and along the migration routes of the tribes across the Zagros Mountains.

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  • LITERACY CORPS

    Farian Sabahi

    (Sepāh-e dāneš), educational program implemented in Iran in the framework of the White Revolution (1963-79) during the reign of Muhammad-Reza Pahlavi (1941-79). With the Literacy Corps, education to some extent escaped the control of the ʿolamāʾ, who used to shape the younger generation along traditional lines.

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  • LITHOGRAPHY i. IN PERSIA

    Olimpiada P. Shcheglova

    The first lithographic printing press was brought to Persia in 1821 from Tiflis (Tbilisi), on the orders of the Crown Prince, ʿAbbās Mirzā. The Persian painter Allāhverdi who had studied lithography there, returned to Tabriz in March 1821 with a complete set of lithographic equipment.

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  • LITHOGRAPHY ii. IN INDIA

    Olimpiada P. Shcheglova

    From the 19th century to the first decade of the 20th, India was at the hub of a great expansion in lithographic printing. Hundreds of lithographic printing houses flourished in India, and although books in Persian were only a part of their production, it was there that the largest number of Persian lithographed books was published.

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  • LITHOGRAPHY iii. IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Olimpiada P. Shcheglova

    Lithographic book printing began in Central Asia in the late 19th century: in the khanate of Khiva, 1874 (in Turkic languages only), in Turkistan in Tashkent, 1881, and in the khanate of Bukhara, 1901. The bulk of lithographed books in Oriental languages were published in Tashkent.

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  • LITHOGRAPHY iv. LITHOGRAPHED ILLUSTRATIONS

    Ulrich Marzolph

    The first illustrated Persian lithographed book is the 1259/1843 edition of Maktabi’s Leili o Majnun.

  • LIZARDS

    Steven C. Anderson

    reptiles belonging to the order Squamata; second to birds, they are the most often seen vertebrates in Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia, especially during daylight hours. “Lizard” is a colloquial term for these reptiles that are members of a larger evolutionary group that includes snakes.

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