Table of Contents


    Peter Jackson

    (sometimes called the Ilakāni by Persian historians), a dynasty of Mongol origin which ruled over Iraq, and for several decades also over north-western Persia, from the collapse of the Il-khanate in the late 1330s until the early 15th century.

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    K. Hitchins

    Soviet Tajik writer (1909-1989), a master of the short story.


    Pierre Oberling

    a small Laki-speaking tribe inhabiting the Kermānšāh and Lorestān regions, most of whom belong to the Ahl-e Haqq sect.


    Hormoz Ebrahimnejad

    (Galen), the Arabic form of Greek Galenos, the name of the illustrious 2nd-century authority on medicine of ancient Greece.


    Klaus Klier

    the site of a major battle between the Sasanian and Muslim forces. This locale is a medium-sized town in the Diāla Province of Iraq, situated on the middle course of the Diāla River.

  • JAM

    M. Reza Fariborz Hamzeh’ee

    name given to a religious ceremony performed among two important religious communities living traditionally in the same historical region on the Zagros Mountain chain.

  • JĀM (1)

    Majd-al-din Keyvani

    a mountainous region on the way from Kabul to Herat, and a historically important village in the province of Ghur (Ḡur) in western Afghanistan.

  • JĀM (2)


    “cup”: in Persian art and literature. Pending online.


    F. B. Flood

    pre-eminent 12th-century monument of the Šansabāni sultans of Ḡur in central Afghanistan. The minaret stands 65 meters high near the confluence of the Harirud and Jāmrud rivers in a remote mountain valley once protected by a series of defensive towers.

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    Ali Sadeghi

    (1885-1969), titled Modir-al-Molk, prime minister under Reżā Shah.