Table of Contents

  • JABA

    Peter Jackson

    (Jebe), 13th-century Mongol general of the Besüt (Bisut) tribe under Čengiz Khan. His original name was Jirḡoʾadai.

  • JABAL ʿĀMEL

    RULA ABISAAB

    , SHIʿITE ULAMA OF, in the Safavid Period. The Safavid monarchs sought prominent clerics who would strengthen their rule by promoting a standard urban system of  Shiʿite worship.

  • JABAL-E SERĀJ

    Erwin Grötzbach

    a small town in the province of Parvān in Afghanistan, located at the mouth of the Sālang valley in Kabul Kohestān to the north of the city of Charikar (Čārikār).

  • JABBĀR ḴĒL

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    the leading lineage of the Solaymān Ḵēl Paxtun tribe of the Ḡalzi/Ḡilzi tribal confederation of eastern and southeastern Afghanistan.

  • JABBĀRA

    P. Oberling

    a group of Shiʿite Arabs in Fārs province who, together with the Šaybāni, form the Arab tribe of the Ḵamsa tribal confederation.

  • JĀBER JOʿFI

    Maria Dakake

    , ABU ʿABD-ALLĀH,  a Kufan traditionist and companion of the fifth and sixth Shiʿite Imams, Moḥammad al-Bāqer and Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq.

  • JĀBERI

    Colin Pual Mitchell

    , MIRZĀ SALMĀN, vizier and prominent statesman during the reigns of Shah Esmāʿil II (1576-77) and Shah Moḥammad Ḵodābanda (1577-88).

  • JABḠUYA

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Arabo-Persian form of the Central Asian title yabḡu. Although it is best known as a Turkish title of nobility, it was in use many centuries before the Turks appear in the historical record.

  • JACKAL

    Steven C. Anderson

    , Golden or Asiatic (Canis aureus, MPers. tōrag, NPers. tura, šaḡāl), a medium-size member of the dog family (Canidae) occurring throughout Afghanistan and Iran. Scavenging supplies a small percentage of the diet, especially in habitats away from humans; and carrion consists mainly of road kill and, around villages, garbage. Jackals are omnivorous, opportunistic feeders, eating fruits and vegetables as well as hunting small animals.

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  • JACKSON, ABRAHAM VALENTINE WILLIAMS

    William W. Malandra

    (1862-1937), pioneer of Iranian studies in America and prominent Iranist for half a century. The most important book of Jackson perhaps was Zoroaster, the Prophet of Ancient Iran (1898). He was not among those who belittled indigenous traditions, nor did he embrace positivistic historiography. He had an abiding faith in the basic historicity of these sources.

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  • JADE

    Manuel Keene

    (nephrite; Pers. yašm, yašb, yašf, yaṣb). An extremely small range of pre-Islamic Iranian jades have thus far been published, despite the very ancient employment of jade in eastern Iran. The known material is often of extraordinary refinement, and testifies to an extensive influence on other jadecarving cultures, including the Chinese.

  • JADE i. Introduction

    Manuel Keene

    carvings in pre-Islamic Central and Western Asia was largely an east Iranian and Turkic phenomenon, and the same holds true for the Islamic tradition.

  • JADE ii. Pre-Islamic Iranian Jades

    Manuel Keene

    Extant scabbard slides of softer and more brittle stones (e.g., lapis lazuli, rock crystal), as well as wood, suggest that the toughness of jade was not an essential requirement for this function. A number of other types of jade fittings on the warrior and his horse would often accompany the weapon’s mounts.

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  • JADE iii. Jade Carving, 4th century B.C.E to 15th century C.E.

    Manuel Keene

    The eleven ancient and medieval jades illustrated in the plates are representatives of a very large and expanding corpus of ancient and medieval Iranian jades. They are primarily discussed as works of art, but the ways in which they document the technological sophistication of the hardstone industries in Iran, and Iran’s cultural interrelationships, are also examined.

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  • JADIDISM

    K. Hitchens

    a movement of reform among Muslim intellectuals in Central Asia, mainly among the Uzbeks and the Tajiks, from the first years of the 20th century to the 1920s.

  • JAF (JĀF)

    M. Reza Fariborz Hamzeh’ee

    a once large Kurdish nomadic confederation living in south Iraqi Kurdistan and in the Sanandaj area of Iranian Kurdistan.

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ

    Multiple Authors

    ABU ʿABD-ALLĀH (ca. 702-765), the sixth imam of the Imami Shiʿites. He spent most of his life in Medina, where he built up a circle of followers primarily as a theologian, Ḥadith transmitter, and jurist (faqih).

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ i. Life

    Robert Gleaves

    life spanned the latter half of the Umayyad dynasty ruling from Damascus, which was marked by various rebellions, the rise of the ʿAbbasids, and the establishment of the ʿAbbasid caliphate in Baghdad.

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ ii. Teachings

    Robert Gleaves

    teaching is hampered by the fact that his views are reported in support of a number of contradictory theological and legal positions. 

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ iii. And Sufism

    Hamid Algar

    all the Sufi orders claim initiatic descent from the Prophet exclusively through ʿAli b. Abi Ṭāleb, the first imam of the Ahl al-Bayt, and many speak also of a selselat al-ḏahab (golden chain), linking them with all of the first eight of the Twelve Imams.

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ iv. And Esoteric sciences

    Daniel De Smet

    a major figure in Shiʿite esotericism, is purported to be the founder of occult science in Islam. According to Imami-Shiʿite tradition, his knowledge concerned “the exoteric (al-ẓāher), the esoteric (al-bāṭen), and the esoteric of the esoteric (bāṭen al-bāṭen).” 

  • JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ v. And herbal medicine

    Ahmad Kazemi Moussavi

    work on medicine (Ṭebb al-Emām al-Ṣādeq) belongs to a genre of traditional herbal medicine attributed to the Shiʿite imams and known as the Medicine of the imams (ṭebb al-aʾemma), whose salient figure is Imam Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq.

  • JAʿFAR B. MANṢUR-AL-YAMAN

    Hamid Haji

    a high-ranking Ismaʿili author who flourished in the 10th century, during the reigns of the first four Fatimid caliphs.

  • JAʿFAR B. MOḤAMMAD B. ḤARB

    Joseph van Ess

    , ABU’L-FAŻL AL-HAMDĀNI (d. 850), also called al-Ašajj ("scar-face" or "skull-broken"), Muʿtazilite theologian who lived in Baghdad.

  • JAʿFAR B. YAḤYĀ BARMAKI

    cross-reference

    See BARMAKIDS.

  • JAʿFAR ḴĀN AZ FARANG ĀMADA

    MARYAM SHARIATI

    acclaimed satirical drama in one act by ʿAli Nowruz, a pen name of the playwright Ḥasan Moqaddam (1895-1925).

  • JAʿFAR KHAN BAḴTIĀRI

    cross-reference

    See BAḴTIĀRI (1).

  • JAʿFARI, ŠAʿBĀN

    H. E. Chehabi

    (1921-2006), a luṭi of the jāhel variety, athlete, and rightwing political agent from the early 1940s to the early 1950s, who later headed Persia’s traditional sports establishment (zur-ḵāna).

  • JAʿFARQOLI KHAN BAḴTIĀRI

    cross-reference

    See BAḴTIĀRI (1).

  • JAFR

    Gernot Windfuhr

    a term of uncertain etymology used to designate the major divinatory art in Islamic mysticism and gnosis—the art  of discovering the predestined fate of nations, dynasties, religions, and individuals by a variety of methods.

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  • JAGARḴWIN

    Keith Hitchins

    (or Cegerxwin), pseudonym of Şêxmûs Hesen (1903-1984), considered by many the leading Kurdish poet of the 20th century writing in Kurmanji.

  • JAḠATU

    Nicholas Sims-Williams

    an archeological site in Ḡazni province, Afghanistan, situated about 20 km north of Ḡazni on the route between Ḡazni and Wardak.

  • JAGHATAY

    cross-reference

    See CHAGHATAYID DYNASTY.

  • JAḠMINI, MAḤMUD

    Lutz Richter-Bernburg

    b. Moḥammad b. ʿOmar  (d. 1344), an astronomer from Jaḡmin, a village in Ḵᵛārazm. The author of a brief Arabic survey of mathematical astronomy.

  • JĀḠORI

    A. Monsutti

    a term of uncertain etymological origin for both a tribal section of the Hazāras and a district (woluswāli) of Ḡazni province in Afghanistan.

  • JAHĀN TIMÜR

    Charles Melville

    recognized briefly as Il-khan in Iraq and Mesopotamia in 1339-40 during the period of the collapse of the Il-khanate.

  • JAHĀN-E ZANĀN

    Nassereddin Parvin

    (Women’s World), short-lived magazine, 1921. Published first in Mašhad (four issues) and, after a lapse of about five months, in Tehran (one issue only). 

  • JAHĀN-MALEK ḴĀTUN

    Dominic Parviz Brookshaw

    (d. after 1382), Injuid princess, poet, and contemporary of Ḥāfeẓ. The style and quality of her poetry suggest that she was acquainted with famous male contemporaries Ḥāfeẓ and ʿObayd Zākāni.

  • JAHĀNĀRĀ BEGUM

    Stephen Dale

    (1614-81), the eldest surviving daughter of the Mughal Emperor Šāh Jahān and his favorite wife, Momtāz Mahal.

  • JAHĀNBEGLU

    P. Oberling

    (or Jānbeglu), one of several Kurdish tribes transplanted from northwestern Persia to Māzandarān by Āḡā Moḥammad Khan Qajar (r. 1789-97).

  • JAHĀNGAŠT

    cross-reference

     See BOḴĀRI, SHAIKH JALĀL-AL-DIN.

  • JAHĀNGIR

    Lisa Balabanlilar

    the fourth Mughal emperor, the first of his dynasty to have been born in India (1569-1627).

  • JAHĀNGIR KHAN ŠIRĀZI

    cross-reference

    See ṢUR-E ESRĀFIL.

  • JAHĀNGOŠĀ-YE JOVAYNI

    Charles Melville

    , TĀRIḴ-E,  title of the history of the Mongols composed in 1252-60 by the Il-khanid Persian vizier, ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Abu’l-Moẓaffar ʿAṭā-Malek Jovayni.

  • JAHĀNGOŠĀ-YE NĀDERI

    Ernest Tucker

    , TĀRIḴ-E (or Tāriḵ-e nāderi), one of the most important chronicles of the reign of Nāder Shah Afšār (r. 1736-47) by his court secretary, Mirzā Moḥammad-Mahdi Khan EEstrābādi/Astarābādi.

  • JAHĀNŠĀH QARĀ QOYUNLU

    Cross-Reference

    See QARĀ QOYUNLU DYNASTY. Forthcoming.

  • JĀḤEẒ

    Michael Cooperson

    , ABU ʿOṮMĀN ʿAMR B. BAḤR (b. ca. 776; d. 868-9), the leading Arabic prose writer of the 9th century.

  • JAHM B. ṢAFWĀN

    Joseph van Ess

    , ABU MOḤREZ, Islamic theologian of the Umayyad period (d. 746). Documentation about him is scarce and not entirely reliable.

  • JAHN, KARL EMIL OSKAR

    J. T. P. DE Bruijn

    (1906-1985), Czech orientalist who specialized in Central Asian history, Persian historiography, and Turcology.

  • JAHROM

    SHIVA JA’FARI

    city and sub-province (šahrestān) in central Fārs Province, covering an area of 4,517 sq. km.

  • JAIPUR

    Catherine B. Asher

    city in northwestern India, founded in 1727 by the Kachhwaha prince (raja) and Mughal officer Sawai Jai Singh Kachhwaha (1688-1743). He had a passionate interest in astronomy and, inspired by Ulugh Beg’s (1394-1449) astronomical observations and tables (zij), he wrote the Zij-e Moḥammad-Šāhi and built an observatory in Jaipur with enormous instruments for observing and calculating celestial phenomena

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  • JĀJARMI

    Anna Livia Beelaert

    , MOḤAMMAD B. BADR, 14th-century Persian poet and anthologist.

  • JĀJRUD

    Bernard Hourcade

    a major river of the southern slopes of the central Alborz in the Central Plateau (140 km. long, basin of 1,890 km²),  running from the mountains of Šami-rānāt at Rudbār-e Qaṣrān to the plain of Varāmin and eventually joins the salt lake of Qom (Daryāča-ye Qom), at about 89 km to the northwest of the city.

  • JĀKI

    P. Oberling

    a group of Lor tribes in the Kuhgiluya region of eastern Khuzesan. They comprise the tribal confederations of the Čahārboniča (or Čarboniča) and the Lirāvi.

  • JAKKADI

    Maria Sabaye Moghaddam

    a dance style performed by Persian women, as documented in Sanskrit treatises of the 16th and 17th centuries.

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN ABU’L-QĀSEM TABRIZI

    Farhan Nizami

    (d. 1244-45), a prominent Sufi of the Sohravardiya Order. Started his education in Tabriz under Badr-al-Din Abu Saʿid Tabrizi.

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN DAVĀNI

    cross-reference

    See DAVĀNI.

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN ḤASAN III

    FARHAD DAFTARY

    (b. 1166-67; d. 1221), Nezāri Ismaʿili imam and the sixth lord of Alamut. He succeeded to the leadership of the Nezāridaʿwa (‘propaganda’ or ‘mission,’ see DĀʿI) and state on the death of his father, Nur-al-Din Moḥammad II b. Ḥasan II.

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN ḴvĀRAZMŠĀH(I) MENGÜBIRNI

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    the last Ḵᵛārazmšāh of the line of Anuštigin Ḡarčaʾi, reigned in 1220-31 as the eldest son and successor of ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad.

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN MIRZĀ

    Abbas Amanat and Farzin Vejdani

    Qajar historian and freethinker (1827-1872). Born at the court in Tehran, he was the fifty-fifth son of Fatḥ-ʿAli Shah (r. 1797-1834). Besides European influences, the intellectual sources of his freethinking are not entirely known. He associated with Mirzā Malkom Khan (1833-1908) and his secret society, the Farāmuš-ḵāna (‘house of oblivion’), which made strident efforts to recruit members.

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  • JALĀL-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD BALḴI, MAWLAWI

    cross-reference

    See RUMI. Forthcoming, online.

  • JALĀL-AL-DIN TURĀNŠĀH

    cross-reference

    See MOZAFFARIDS.

  • JALĀL-AL-MOLK

    cross-reference

    See IRAJ MIRZĀ.

  • JALĀLĀBĀD

    Shah Mahmoud Hanifi

    a city, a valley, and an administrative unit of fluctuating scope within the Afghan state structure. The city is located in eastern Afghanistan at 1,885 feet above sea level in the north-central portion of an elongated oval valley that stretches approximately 80 miles east to west.

  • JALĀLI

    Pierre Oberling

    a Kurdish tribe of eastern Anatolia and northwestern Persia.

  • JALĀLZĀDA

    Tahsın Yazici

    , MOṢṬAFĀ ÇELEBI, also known as “Koja Nişancı” (Ḵᵛāja Nešānči), Ottoman historian and administrator (b. ca. 1490-94; d. 1567).

  • JALĀYER

    cross-reference

    See KHORASAN i. ETHNIC GROUPS.

  • JALĀYER, ESMĀʿIL KHAN

    Manouchehr Broomand

    a prominent painter of the Qajar era, during the reign of Nāṣer-al-Din Shah (r. 1848-96). He was  noted for his work in the genres of irāni-sāzi (Iranian subjects, relatively unaffected by European influences) and ṭabiʿat-sāzi (fauna and flora in a European naturalistic mode).

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  • JALĀYER-NĀMA

    cross-reference

    See QĀʾEM-MAQĀM.

  • JALAYERIDS

    Peter Jackson

    (sometimes called the Ilakāni by Persian historians), a dynasty of Mongol origin which ruled over Iraq, and for several decades also over north-western Persia, from the collapse of the Il-khanate in the late 1330s until the early 15th century.

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  • JALIL, RAHIM

    K. Hitchins

    Soviet Tajik writer (1909-1989), a master of the short story.

  • JALILAVAND

    Pierre Oberling

    a small Laki-speaking tribe inhabiting the Kermānšāh and Lorestān regions, most of whom belong to the Ahl-e Haqq sect.

  • JĀLINUS

    Hormoz Ebrahimnejad

    (Galen), the Arabic form of Greek Galenos, the name of the illustrious 2nd-century authority on medicine of ancient Greece.

  • JALULĀʾ

    Klaus Klier

    the site of a major battle between the Sasanian and Muslim forces. This locale is a medium-sized town in the Diāla Province of Iraq, situated on the middle course of the Diāla River.

  • JAM

    M. Reza Fariborz Hamzeh’ee

    name given to a religious ceremony performed among two important religious communities living traditionally in the same historical region on the Zagros Mountain chain.

  • JĀM (1)

    Majd-al-din Keyvani

    a mountainous region on the way from Kabul to Herat, and a historically important village in the province of Ghur (Ḡur) in western Afghanistan.

  • JĀM (2)

    Pending

    “cup”: in Persian art and literature. Pending online.

  • JĀM MINARET

    F. B. Flood

    pre-eminent 12th-century monument of the Šansabāni sultans of Ḡur in central Afghanistan. The minaret stands 65 meters high near the confluence of the Harirud and Jāmrud rivers in a remote mountain valley once protected by a series of defensive towers.

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  • JAM, MAḤMUD

    Ali Sadeghi

    , titled Modir-al-Molk (1885-1969), prime minister under Reżā Shah.

  • JAMĀL-AL-DIN ʿASADĀBĀDI

    cross-reference

    See AFGANI, JAMĀL-AL-DIN.

  • JAMĀL-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD EṢFAHĀNI

    D. DURAND-GUÉDY

    poet and painter of the second half of the 12th century.

  • JAMĀLI ṢUFI

    Maryam Ekhtiari

    , PIR YAḤYĀ, calligrapher of the mid-8th/14th century who worked in Shiraz in the 740s/1340s.

  • JAMĀLI, ḤĀMED B. FAŻL-ALLĀH

    A. A. Seyed-Gohrab

    Persian-speaking Indian poet (b. Delhi, ca. 862/1457; d. Gujarat, 942/1535).

  • JAMALZADEH, MOHAMMAD-ALI

    Multiple Authors

    prominent Iranian intellectual, a pioneer of modern Persian prose fiction and of the genre of the short story (1892-1997).

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  • JAMALZADEH, MOHAMMAD-ALI i. Life

    Nahid Mozaffari

    Mohammad-Ali, the eldest of five children, was born in 1892 in Isfahan.

  • JAMALZADEH, MOHAMMAD-ALI ii. Work

    Hassan Kamshad and Nahid Mozaffari

    Jamalzadeh, an innovator of the modern literary language, was the first to introduce the techniques of European short-story writing in Persian literature.

  • JAMALZADEH, MOHAMMAD-ALI iii. Bibliography

    Nahid Mozaffari

    a bibliography of Jamalzadeh’s work.

  • JĀMĀSP

    Jamsheed K. Choksy, Nikolaus Schindel

    Sasanian king. He ascended to the throne in 496 (or possibly early 497) when his brother, the king of kings Kawād I, was deposed.  Jāmāsp, like Kawād, was a son of the Sasanian ruler Pērōz (r. 459-84).  

  • Jāmāsp i. REIGN

    JAMSHEED K. CHOKSY

    Jāmāsp or Zāmāsp (Middle Persian yʾmʾsp, zʾmʾsp; Greek Zamásphēs; Arabic Jāmāsb, Zāmāsb, Zāmāsf; New Persian Jāmāsp, Zāmāsp) ascended to the Sasanian throne in 496.

  • Jāmāsp ii. Coinage

    NIKOLAUS SCHINDEL

    No gold coins are attested so far for Jāmāsp. Apart from the silver drachms, sixths of a drachm, or obols, are known from the mints DA and LD. All the DA specimens are dated to regnal year one, and perhaps are connected with the king’s coronation, which thus may have taken place in Dārābḡerd.

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  • JĀMĀSP-NĀMA

    Cross-Reference

    See AYĀDGĀR I JĀMĀSPIG.

  • JĀMĀSPA

    W. W. Malandra

    an official at the court of Vīštāspa and an early convert of Zarathushtra, who, in the tradition became widely known for his wisdom.

  • JĀMĀSPASA, Dastur JAMASPJI MINOCHERJI

    Ramiyar P. Karanjia and Michael Stausberg

    (1830-1898), Parsi priest and Iranologist, offspring of a priestly family from Navsari in Gujarat, India. As a high priest he guided and supervised the consecration of several fire temples, not only in Bombay but all over India. He possessed a vast collection of important Zoroastrian manuscripts, and his publication Pahlavi texts (1897-1913) made these  available to a larger audience.

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  • JĀMĀSPI

    Cross-Reference

    See AYĀDGĀR I JĀMĀSPIG.

  • JĀMEʿ AL-ḤEKĀYĀT

    Dariush Kargar

    (lit. Compiler of stories), one of the oldest and most common titles of mostly anonymous Persian story collections, dating from the 13th to the 19th century.

  • JĀMEʿ AL-ḤEKMATAYN

    cross-reference

    See NĀṢER-E ḴOSROW.

  • JĀMEʿ AL-ʿOLUM

    cross-reference

    See ENCYCLOPAEDIAS, PERSIAN.

  • JĀMEʿ AL-TAMṮIL

    Ulrich Marzolph

    a collection of Persian proverbs and their stories compiled in 1045/1644 by Moḥammad-ʿAli Ḥablarudi.

  • JĀMEʿ AL-TAVĀRIḴ-E ḤASANI

    İlker Evrim Binbaş

    a Timurid universal chronicle up to December 1451-January 1452, with a valuable final section on events in Kerman up to 1453. 

  • JĀMEʿ AL-TAWĀRIḴ

    Charles Melville

    (The Compendium of chronicles), historical work composed in 1300-10 by Ḵᵛāja Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh Ṭabib Hamadāni, vizier to the Mongol Il-khans Ḡāzān and Öljeitü.

  • JĀMEʿ al-TAWĀRIḴ ii. Illustrations

    Sheila S. Blair

    Just as the text of Rašid-al-Din Fażl-Allāh’s Jāmeʿ al-tawāriḵ can be regarded as groundbreaking historically, so too the illustrations to it are seminal for the study of art history.

  • JĀMEʿ-E ʿABBĀSI

    Sajjad Rizvi

    a Persian manual on foruʿ al-feqh (positive rules derived from the sources of legal knowledge) in Shiʿism.

  • JĀMEʿA

    cross-reference

    See ZIĀRAT-E JĀMEʿA.

  • JĀMEʿA-YE LISĀNSIAHĀ-YE DĀNEŠ-SARĀ-YE ʿĀLI

    Ahmad Birashk

     the Association of graduates of the Teacher Training College, founded in 1932 by its first two graduating classes.

  • JĀMI

    Multiple Authors

    , ʿABD-AL-RAḤMĀN NUR-AL-DIN b. Neẓām-al-Din Aḥmad-e Dašti, Persian poet, scholar, and Sufi (1414-1492). Over almost fifty years, he turned his hand to every genre of Persian poetry and penned numerous treatises on a wide range of topics in the humanities and religious sciences.

  • JĀMI i. Life and Works

    Paul Losensky

    though born in the hamlet of Ḵarjerd, Jāmi would take his penname from the nearby village of Jām (lying about midway between Mashad and Herat), where he spent his childhood.

  • JĀMI ii. And Sufism

    Hamid Algar

    among the several facets of Jāmi’s persona and career—Sufi, scholar, poet, associate of rulers—it may be permissible to award primacy to the first mentioned.

  • JĀMI iii. And Persian Art

    Chad Kia

    Jāmi’s writings are among the most frequently illustrated in the history of Persian manuscript painting.

  • JĀMI RUMI

    OSMAN G. ÖZGÜDENLI

    (or Jāmi Meṣri), AḤMAD, Ottoman official, poet, and translator (fl. 10th/16th century).

  • JAMʿIYAT-E MOʾTALEFA-YE ESLĀMI

    Ali Rahnema

    (Society of Islamic Coalition), a religious-political organization founded in 1963 to propagate Ayatollah Khomeini’s vision of an Islamic-Iranian state and society and to mobilize the population to implement that vision. 

  • JAMʿIYAT-E MOʾTALEFA-YE ESLĀMI i. Hayʾathā-ye Moʾtalefa-ye Eslāmi 1963-79

    Ali Rahnema

    The Islamic Coalition of Mourning Groups was born almost two years after the death of Ayatollah Ḥosayn Ṭabāṭabāʾi Borujerdi in 1961.

  • JAMʿIYAT-E MOʾTALEFA-YE ESLĀMI ii. Jamʿiyat-e Moʾtalefa and the Islamic Revolution

    Ali Rahnema

    After the 1979 Revolution, the “Coalition of Islamic Mourning Groups” changed its expressive and meaningful name to the rather awkward appellation of Jamʿiyat-e moʾtalefa-ye eslāmi (the Society of Islamic Coalition).

  • JAMḴĀNA

    cross-reference

    See AḤL-E ḤAQQ.

  • JAMKARĀN

    Jean Calmard

    village near Qom, located 6 km south of it on the Qom-Kashan highway. It includes the mazraʿas of Gorgābi (Hādi-Mehdi) and Zangābād, the ruins of Gabri castle, and the Jamkarān or Ṣāḥeb-al-Zamān mosque.

  • JAMSHIDI TRIBE

    Christine Noelle-Karimi

    (Jamšidi) one of several semi-nomadic, Persian-speaking, Hanafite Sunni groups of northwestern Afghanistan known as aymāq.

  • JAMŠID

    Multiple Authors

    (or Jam), mythical king of Iran; Avestan Yima (Old Indic Yama), with the epithet xšaēta.

  • JAMŠID B. MASʿUD ḠIĀṮ-AL-DIN KĀŠI

    cross-reference

    See KĀŠI.

  • JAMŠID i. Myth of Jamšid

    PRODS OKTOR SKJÆRVØ

    In the Avesta, he ruled the world in a golden age; he saved living beings from a natural catastrophe by preserving specimens in his var- (fortress); he possessed the most Fortune among mortals, but lost it and his kingship as a consequence of lying.

  • JAMŠID ii. In Persian Literature

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    Sources all agree that he reigned for several hundred years, but they differ on the exact length of his rule.

  • JĀN MOḤAMMAD KHAN

    Bāqer ʿĀqeli

    , AMIR ʿALĀʾI (1886-1951), brigadier general and commander of Khorasan army during the early Reżā Shah period, noted for his ruthlessness but eventually undone due to a mutiny of unpaid  troops.

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  • JANĀB

    cross-reference

    See ALQĀB VA ʿANĀWIN.

  • JANĀB DAMĀVANDI

    S. A. Mir ʿAlinaqi

    (1867-1973), popular name of Moḥammad Fallāḥi, a vocalist of the late Qajar period.

  • JAND

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a medieval Islamic town on the right bank of the lower Jaxartes in Central Asia some 350 km from where the river enters the Aral Sea.

  • JANDAQ

    M. Badanj

    a town and rural district (dehestān) in the Ḵor and Biābānak district (baḵš) of Nāʾin sub-province in the province of Isfahan.

  • JANGALI MOVEMENT

    Pezhmann Dailami

    (1915-20), under the leadership of Mirzā Kuček Khan Jangali, in response to the political decay during World War I and the occupation of Iran by Anglo-Russian and Ottoman troops.

  • JĀNI BEG KHAN BIGDELI ŠĀMLU

    Rudi Matthee

    (d. 1645), išik-āqāsi-bāši (master of ceremony) and qurči-bāši (head of the tribal guards) under the Safavid Shah Ṣafi I (r. 1629-42) and Shah ʿAbbās II (r. 1642-66).

  • JANNĀBA

    Cross-Reference

    term used by early Muslim geographers to refer to the county (šahrestān) and port city on the Persian Gulf in the province of Būšehr. See GANĀVA.

  • JANNĀBI, ABU SAʿID

    Cross-Reference

    11th-century vizier and man of letters. See, ĀBI, ABU SAʿID.

  • JAPAN

    Multiple Authors

    AND ITS RELATIONS WITH IRAN. The subject of contact between the two countries will be discussed in the following sub-entries.

  • JAPAN i. Introduction

    C. J. Brunner

    Direct contact and observation of each other by Persians and Japanese would wait for the establishment of Japan’s relations with the world by the modernizing administration of the Meiji period (1868-1912).

  • JAPAN ii. Diplomatic and Commercial Relations with Iran

    Nobuaki Kondo

    Although it is not clear when Iran initiated diplomatic contact with Japan, it is believed to have been in 1873, when Nāṣer-al-Din Shah, on his first trip to Europe, met Naonobu Sameshima of Satsuma, who was the then Japanese ambassador to Paris, France. The shah did not include many details about the meeting in his memoir.

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  • Japan iii. Japanese Travelers to Persia

    Tadahiko Ohtsu and Hashem Rajabzadeh

    It was only in 1854 that relations with foreign countries were resumed. This process gathered pace with the advent of the Meiji period (1868-1912), when the Japanese were allowed to go on official visits abroad.

  • JAPAN iv. Iranians in Japan

    Toyoko Morita

    Among the foreigners in Japan, Iranians total about 5,000 people, constituting a small minority group.

  • JAPAN v. ARCHEOLOGICAL MISSIONS TO PERSIA

    Toh Sugimura

    After World War II Japanese archeologists could not continue their work on sites in Korea and China, and their expertise became available for research in the Middle East and Persia.

  • JAPAN vi. IRANIAN STUDIES IN JAPAN, PRE-ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Takeshi Aoki

    Ancient Iranian studies in Japan started at the beginning of the 20th century in Tokyo and Kyoto independently.

  • JAPAN vii. IRANIAN STUDIES, ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Cross-Reference

     Forthcoming, Online.

  • JAPAN viii. SAFAVID STUDIES IN JAPAN

    Masashi Haneda

    The genesis of Safavid studies in Japan was an outgrowth of the interest in the history of the Mongols and the Turkic people, which is a significant point characterizing Safavid studies there.

  • JAPAN ix. Centers for Persian Studies in Japan

    Hashem Rajabzadeh

    Formal undergraduate and graduate programs of Persian studies in Japan are offered at Osaka University School of Foreign Studies and Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.

  • JAPAN x. COLLECTIONS OF PERSIAN BOOKS IN JAPAN

    Cross-Reference

    Forthcoming, online.

  • JAPAN xi. COLLECTIONS OF PERSIAN ART IN JAPAN

    Toh Sugimura

    Persian works of art in Japanese collections may be classified into (1) artifacts brought through China and Korea up to early modern times, (2) purchases in art markets since the 19th century.

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  • JAPAN xii. TRANSLATIONS OF PERSIAN WORKS INTO JAPANESE

    Hashem Rajabzadeh

    Japanese readers were introduced to the Persian classics with translations of ʿOmar Ḵayyām’s Robāʿiyāt and Ferdowisi’s Šāh-nāma.

  • JAPAN xiii. TRANSLATIONS OF JAPANESE WORKS INTO PERSIAN

    Hashem Rajabzadeh

    Introduction of Japan to Persian readers began when Japanese military victories over China (1894-95) and, especially, Russia (1904-05) excited the interest of Iranians.

  • JĀRČI

    Charles Melville

    a public crier, announcer or herald, derived from the Mongol jar (proclamation, announcement). Criers or heralds naturally have a role in both civilian and military capacities.

  • JĀRČI-E MELLAT

    EIr.

    a weekly satirical newspaper published in Tehran, 1910-28 (with long interruptions).

  • JARI, TALL-E

    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    a Fars Province site named for its two closely situated prehistoric mounds, Jari A and B. The two mounds are located approximately 12 km southeast of Persepolis.

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  • JARQUYA

    Habib Borjian

    district located in the eastern region of Isfahan Province. i. The district. ii. The dialect.

  • JARQUYA i. The District

    Habib Borjian

    Separated from Isfahan by the Šāhkuh range, Jarquya spreads over 6,500 km², stretching in a northwest-southeast direction to the wasteland that separates it from Abarquh.

  • JARQUYA ii. The Dialect

    Habib Borjian

    The dialect of Jarquya, together with those of Rudašt and Kuhpāya to its north, belongs to the Isfahani subgroup of the Central Dialects. Only about half of the villages of the district have retained their idioms, namely Ganjābād, Siān, Yangābād, Peykān, Mazraʿa-ʿArab, and Ḥaydarābād in Lower Jarquya, and Dastgerd, Kamālābād, Ḥasanābād, Ḵārā, and Yaḵčāl in Upper Jarquya.

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  • JARRĀḤI RIVER

    cross-reference

    See KHUZESTAN i. Geography.

  • JĀRUDIYA

    cross-reference

    See ZAIDIS.

  • JĀS

    D. T. Potts

    also written Jāšk (‘Jasques’ in English East India Company sources), a small Baluchi port on the Makrān coast with palm gardens.

  • JĀSK

    Daniel T. Potts

    a small Baluchi port on the Makrān coast with palm gardens, considered part of the Hormozgan province.

  • JAŠN

    cross-reference

    See GĀHANBĀR; FESTIVALS ii.

  • JĀSP

    cross-reference

    See MAḤALLĀT.

  • JĀT

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    a contested and ambiguous label for several non-food-producing peripatetic, itinerant communities in Afghanistan and the surrounding region.

  • JĀTAKASTAVA

    Mauro Maggi

    a Khotanese religious poem in praise (Skt. stava-) of the Buddha’s former births (Skt. jātaka-).

  • JAUBERT, PIERRE AMÉDÉE ÉMILIEN-PROBE

    Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam

    It was only in June 1806 that Jaubert was received in audience by the Shah of Persia in Tehran and presented a letter from Napoleon. The negotiations were carried out very well and the court of Persia offered him a large portrait of the shah as well as various Persian manuscripts that Jaubert gave to the Imperial Library after his return to Paris in January 1807.

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  • JAVĀNMARDI

    Mohsen Zakeri

    also fotowwa, denoting a wide variety of amorphous associations with initiation rituals and codes in the Islamic world, primarily in its eastern regions.

  • JAVĀNRUD

    ʿAbd-Allāh Marduḵ and EIr.

    a city and a sub-province (šahrestān) in the northwest of Kermānšāhān Province near the border with Iraq at about 110 km southwest of Sanandaj sub-province.

  • JAVĀNŠIR QARĀBĀḠI, JAMĀL

    George Bournoutian

    (1773-1853), a leader of the Javānšir tribe and an office-holder in Qarābāḡ and Dagestan.

  • JĀVDĀN-NĀMA

    Orkhan Mir-Kasimov

    the major work of Fażl-Allāh Astarābādi (d. 1394), the founder of the Ḥorufi movement.

  • JĀVID, ʿABD-AL-AḤMAD

    Nassereddin Parvin

    Following his passion for Persian literature, Jāvid enrolled at the Faculty of Literature at Tehran University and studied alongside a number of students who would later rise to prominence. After compiling the preliminary work for his dissertation, he returned to Kabul with B.A. degrees in literature and law and began to teach and conduct research.

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  • JĀVID-NĀMA

    David Matthews

    (Pers. Jāved-nāma), title of a Persian maṯnawi by Muhammad Iqbal, often rendered into English as “The Song of Eternity,” first published in 1932.

  • JAWĀHER AL-ʿAJĀYEB

    Maria Szuppe

    a short, rare kind of taḏkera in Persian, containing biographies of female poets and specimens of their verses (mostly in Persian, some in Chaghatay Turkish).

  • JAWĀHER-E ḴAMSA

    Carl W. Ernst

    title of a Persian work on Sufi meditation practices composed by the well-known and controversial Šaṭṭārī saint, Moḥammad Ḡawṯ Gwāleyārī (1500-1563).

  • JAWĀHER-NĀMA

    Yves Porter

    the title of several Persian works on precious stones, gems, minerals, and metals, as well as on crafts related to them.

  • JAWĀLIQI, HEŠĀM

    Abbas Kadhim

    b. Sālem, an Imami jurist and theologian of the 8th century. He was a close associate of the Imams Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq and Musā al-Kāẓem.

  • JAWĀMEʿ AL-ḤEKĀYĀT

    Dariush Kargar

    the earliest and the most comprehensive collection of stories in the Persian language, compiled by Sadid-al-Din Moḥammad ʿAwfi (d. after 1232).

  • JAWHARI, ABU ʿABD-ALLĀH AḤMAD

    Abbas Kadhim

     b. Moḥammad b. ʿObayd-Allāh b. Ḥasan b. ʿAyyāš, 10th-century Imami transmitter of Hadith (d. 1010).

  • JAXARTES

    Cross-Reference

    river in Central Asia. See SYR DARYA, forthcoming online.

  • JAZĀʾERI, NEʿMAT-ALLĀH ŠOŠTARI

    Forthcoming

    NEʿMAT-ALLĀH ŠOŠTARI JAZĀʾERI will be discussed in a future online entry.

  • JAZI, ʿABBĀS

    Habib Borjian

    , DARVIŠ (1847-1905), poet in the dialect of Gaz, an oasis north of Isfahan.

  • JAZIRI

    Joyce Blau

    , SHAIKH AḤMAD, or Malâ-ye Jizrî, early Kurdish poet.

  • JAŽN-Ā JAMĀʿIYA

    Khalil Jindy Rashow

    (Feast of the Assembly), the great communal festival of the Yazidis.

  • JEBĀL

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    in Arabic, the plural of jabal “mountain,” a geographical term used in early Islamic times for the western part of Persia, roughly corresponding to ancient Media (Ar. māh).

  • JEBHE-YE MELLI

    cross-reference

    See NATIONAL FRONT.

  • JEBRIL B. ʿOBAYD-ALLĀH

    cross-reference

    See BOḴTIŠUʿ.

  • JEH

    Albert de Jong

    name of a female demon in a small number of Zoroastrian Middle Persian texts. The name of Jeh is commonly, but with little justification, translated as “whore.”

  • JEJEEBHOY, JAMSETJEE

    Jesse S. Palsetia

    , Sir (1783-1859), Parsi businessman and philanthropist. He was a product of the age of partnership and commercial collaboration begun with the introduction of European imperialism in Asia in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The consignment of Indian opium to East Asia constituted his major business enterprise. His charitable projects and loyalty to the British garnered him honors and public acclaim.

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  • JELD

    cross-reference

    See BOOKBINDING 1BOOKBINDING 2.

  • JELWA, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    Mahdi Khalaji

    b. Moḥammad Ṭabāṭabāʾi (1823-1897), a leading Shiʿite scholar and master teacher of philosophy and mathematics.

  • JELWA, KETĀB AL-

    Philip Kreyenbroek

    (Kurd. Kitēba jilwe “the Book of splendor”), title of a notional sacred text in Yazidism.

  • JEM SOLṬĀN

    Osman G. Özgüdenli

    (or Šāhzāda Jem, 1459-1495), Ottoman prince and poet.

  • JEMĀLI

    Osman G. Özgüdenli

    Ottoman poet and writer of the 15th century.

  • JEN-NĀMA

    Mohammad Reza Ghanoonparvar

    (The book of jinn, Sweden, 1998), the last novel of Hushang Golshiri, arguably his magnum opus.

  • JENJĀN

    Daniel T. Potts

    coll. Jenjun, “Jinjun,” village in western Fārs, small archeological site of the Achaemenid period. 

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  • JENKINSON, ANTHONY

    Stephan Schmuck

    (1529-1611), merchant and traveler. On 2 November 1562, he arrived in Qazvin, the seat of Shah Ṭahmāsp (r. 1524-76). But the shah did not wish to jeopardize his recently concluded peace with the Ottoman empire, so that Jenkinson was neither well received at court nor did he obtain the desired documents. In his writings, Jenkinson succinctly described his journeys to regions never before visited by English travelers.

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  • JENN

    cross-reference

    See GENIE.

  • JÉQUIER, GUSTAVE

    Nader Nasiri-Moghaddam

    During his five year residence in Persia, Jéquier sent home to his family many letters and accounts of his daily life in Persia and these were compiled and published posthumously as a volume entitled En Perse 1897-1902 by his son Michel Jéquier.

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  • JERGA

    M. Jamil Hanifi

    an assembly or council of local adult men, among the settled and nomadic Pashtun tribal communities of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

  • JERUSALEM AND IRAN

    Hagith Sivan

    Twice Jerusalem came under Persian rule, the first time in the sixth century BCE, the second during the westward expansion of the Sasanian state in the early seventh century CE.

  • JESUITS IN SAFAVID PERSIA

    Rudi Matthee

    The Fathers of the Society of Jesus were the first European missionaries to enter the Persian Gulf in the 16th century.

  • JEVDET PASHA

    Osman G. Özgüdenli

    (1823-1895), Ottoman writer, historian, jurist, and statesman.

  • JEVDET, ʿABD-ALLĀH

    Osman G.

    (1869-1932), Ottoman poet, writer, translator, and thinker.

  • JEVRI, AHISKALI

    Osman G. Özgüdenli

    (1805-1875), Ottoman poet and translator, a professional soldier.

  • JEVRI, EBRĀHIM ČELEBI

    Osman G.

    (d. 1654), Ottoman poet and calligrapher.

  • JEWISH EXILARCHATE

    Jacob Neusner

    position of the head of the Jewish community in Babylonia in talmudic and medieval times, recognized in Sasanian times as an ethnarch, ruler of the ethnic group.

  • JEWS OF IRAN

    cross-reference

    See JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES.

  • JEYḤUNĀBĀDI

    Mojan Membrado

    , ḤĀJJ NEʿMAT-ALLĀH MOKRI (1871-1920), an influential mystic whose stated mission was to collect and record the previously oral traditions of the Ahl-e Ḥaqq.

  • JEZYA

    Vera B. Moreen

    the poll or capitation tax levied on members of non-Muslim monotheistic faith communities (Jews, Christians, and, eventually, Zoroastrians), who fell under the protection (ḏemma) of Muslim Arab conquerors.

  • JIHAD

    cross-reference

    See ISLAM IN IRAN xi.

  • JIHOṆIKA

    O. Bopearachchi

    a ruler in northwestern India known to us from his coins and an inscription (1st cent. CE).

  • JIROFT

    Multiple Authors

    sub-province (šahrestān), town, and dam in Kerman Province. i. Geography. ii. Human geography and environment. iii. General survey of excavations. iv. Iconography of chlorite artifacts.

  • JIROFT i. Geography of Jiroft Sub-Province

    M. Badanj and EIr.

    Located in the south of Kerman Province, the sub-province of Jiroft is bound by those of Kermān (north), Bam (east), ʿAnbarābād and Kahnuj (south), and Bāft (west).

  • JIROFT ii. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT

    Eric Fouache

    Jiroft is the regional capital of the middle section of the Halil Rud valley, southern Kerman Province. The valley, oriented northwest to southeast, 400 km long, takes its source in the Zagros mountain range north of Jiroft and ends in the endorheic Jaz-murian basin.

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  • JIROFT iii. GENERAL SURVEY OF EXCAVATIONS

    Oscar White Muscarella

    All the artifacts known to date that are accorded the Jiroft label have not been excavated; they have in fact been plundered.

  • JIROFT iv. ICONOGRAPHY OF CHLORITE ARTIFACTS

    Jean Perrot

    In the region of Jiroft, a large number of stone (chlorite) vases and objects, carrying human and animal motifs inlaid with semi-precious stones, have recently been discovered. Technical variations, notably in the inlaying method of colored stones, point to the existence of several workshops. Considering style, the aesthetic ratio of the whole is comparatively high.

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  • JĪVAKAPUSTAKA

    Mauro Maggi

    a medical text in Sanskrit and Khotanese belonging to the Indian Ayurvedic tradition.

  • JIWĀM

    Firoze M. Kotwal and Jamsheed K. Choksy

    “(consecrated) milk,” the designation for one of the organic items—now a mixture of milk and consecrated water—used in the  high or inner liturgical rituals of the Zoroastrians.

  • JÑĀNOLKADHĀRAṆĪ

    Mauro Maggi

    “Spell of [the Buddha] Jñānolka,” the name of a short Buddhist text of the Mahayanist tradition containing two magic spells (dhāraṇī) aimed at the protection and deliverance of beings.

  • JOBBĀʾI

    Sabine Schmidtke

    the name of two Muʿtazilite theologians, Abu ʿAli Moḥammad b. ʿAbd-al-Wahhāb (849-915) and his son Abu Hāšem ʿAbd-al-Salām (890-933).

  • JOČI

    Michal Biran

    (in Persian and Turkic also Tuši, Duši, ca. 1184-1227), the eldest son of Čengiz Khan (d. 1227) and the ancestor of the khans of the Golden Horde, the westernmost Mongolian khanate.

  • JOFT-E GĀV

    Cross-Reference

    "pair of oxen," term used in traditional farming system of Iran. See GĀVBAND.

  • JOḠD

    cross-reference

    See BUF.

  • JOLLĀBI, ABU’L-ḤASAN

    cross-reference

    See HOJVIRI, ABU’L-ḤASAN.

  • JOMUR

    P. Oberling

    (also angl. Jumur), a small Sunnite Kurdish tribe of northern Lorestān.

  • JONAS, Hans

    Kurt Rudolph

    In 1958 Jonas published The Gnostic Religion, which is a revised English version of his German study of gnosticism. He was a prolific author who wrote many books, essays, and articles on the philosophical problems of nature, organism, and technology. His last book was the painstaking study of ethics about Das Prinzip Verantwortung (1979).

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  • JONAYD

    Kathryn Babayan

    B. EBRĀHIM, a patrilineal descendant of Shaikh Ṣafi-al-Din (d. 1334), the founder of the Ṣafaviya order in Ardabil. Jonayd played the central role in expanding the membership of the order.

  • JONAYD-E NAQQĀŠ

    Barbara Brend

    a painter of the 14th century, known from one reference and one picture.

  • JONDIŠĀBUR

    cross-reference

    See GONDĒŠĀPUR.

  • JONES, WILLIAM

    Michael J. Franklin

    , Sir (1746-1794), orientalist and judge, noted for his enduring commitment to a syncretic East-West synthesis and unshakeable belief in cultural pluralism.

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  • JONG

    David J. Roxburgh

    literary miscellany of Persian prose and poetry, and album of pictures and illustrations. Inventiveness in the production of jongs peaked in Persia in the 1400s and continued into the 1500s, when techniques such as découpage, gold-sprinkled, stenciled, and/or painted borders, and  colored inks or outline for calligraphy were introduced.

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  • JONG-E ESFAHĀN

    Jalil Doostkhah

    (Isfahan anthology), an independent, avant-garde literary periodical, established in Isfahan in 1965 by a circle of literary men, irregularly producing 11 issues from 1965 to 1973. 

  • JORBĀDAQĀN

    cross-reference

    See GOLPĀYAGĀN.

  • JORBĀDAQĀNI, ABU’L-ŠARAF

    cross-reference

    See ABU’L-ŠARAF JORBĀDAQĀNI.

  • JORDAN, SAMUEL MARTIN

    Michael Zirinsky

    In Jordan’s time, Iran was beset by Russian and British imperial aspirations, and many Iranians sought to buttress their country’s independence by drawing a third power into the balance. These Iranians saw the US as well-suited for this role because it then had no obvious imperial designs in the region.

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  • JORJĀN

    cross-reference

    See GORGĀN.

  • JORJĀNI, ZAYN-AL-DIN ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALI

    Josef van Ess

    B. MOḤAMMAD B. ʿALI AL-ḤOSAYNI (1340-1413), prolific author and scholar of the early Timurid period.

  • JORJĀNI, ZAYN-AL-DIN ESMĀʿIL

    Hušang Aʿlam

     better known as Sayyed Esmāʿil Jorjāni (b. Gorgān, 1043-44?; d. Marv, 1136-37), physician and author of Ḏaḵira-ye ḵᵛārazamšāhi, the largest encyclopedia of Galenic medicine in Persian. 

  • JOSEPH

    Multiple Authors

    (Ar. Yusof), son of the biblical patriarch Jacob. The story of Joseph has always been a source of attractive subject matters for the exegetists of the Qurʾān, poets, miniaturists, and popular tales.

  • JOSEPH i. IN PERSIAN LITERATURE

    Asghar Dadbeh

    As a love story with religious overtones, the romance of Yusof and Zolayḵā has always been among the very favorite themes of Persian poets.

  • JOSEPH ii. In Qurʾānic Exegesis

    Annabel Keeler

    In the Qurʾān, the story of the prophet Joseph is unique in being related as one continuous narrative, making up almost the entirety of chapter (sura) 12.

  • JOSEPH iii. IN PERSIAN ART

    Chad Kia

    The most appealing subject from the Joseph story has been the episode involving Potiphar’s wife, called Zolayḵā in Islamic lore. The popularity of the stories about Zolay-ḵā’s love for Joseph as a subject for lyrical and narrative poetry dates back to the Ghaznavid period, but they attain prominence as subjects for painting.

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  • JOSTANIDS

    Manouchehr Pezeshk

    also referred to as Āl-e Jostān and Āl-e Vahsudān, a local dynasty that ruled from Rudbār in Deylam, the mountainous district of Gilān during the late 8th and early 9th centuries.

  • JOURNALISM IN IRAN

    Multiple Authors

    the collection and editing of news for presentation through the public press during the Qajar, Pahlavi, and Post-Revolutionary periods.

  • JOURNALISM i. Qajar Period

    Negin Nabavi

    For much of the Qajar period, journalism was a state-run domain. In the second half of the period,  newspapers began to appear increasingly.

  • JOURNALISM ii. Pahlavi Period

    cross-reference

    See forthcoming online.

  • JOURNALISM iii. Post-Revolution Era

    Hossein Shahidi

    At the time of the 1978-79 Revolution, there were about 100 newspapers in Iran, of which twenty-three were dailies. Within two years of the revolution, 700 new titles had appeared.

  • JOVAYN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    name of three historical localities: a village in Fārs, a fortress o the northeast of Lake Zereh in Sistān, and especially the district of that name in Khorasan.

  • JOVAYNI FAMILY

    Hashem Rajabzadeh

    a family of men of the pen and statesmen of the 13th and 14th centuries in Iran. Men of this family held high positions in the government under the Saljuq, Ḵᵛārazmšāh, and Il-khanid dynasties.

  • JOVAYNI, ʿALĀʾ-AL-DIN

    George Lane

    ʿAṬĀ-MALEK b. Moḥammad (1226-1283), governor of Iraq under the Il-khanids, author of Tāriḵ-e jahān-gošāy,  a major primary source for the history of Central Asia and the Mongol conquests.

  • JOVAYNI, EMĀM-AL-ḤARAMAYN

    Paul L. Heck

    , Abu’l-Maʿāli ʿAbd-al-Malek b. ʿAbd-Allāh b. Yusof (1028-1085), a noted Shafiʿite scholar.

  • JOVAYNI, ṢĀḤEB DIVĀN

    Michal Biran

    ŠAMS-AL-DIN MOḤAMMAD b. Moḥammad (d. 1284), Persian statesman of the early Il-khanid period, the younger brother of the historian  ʿAlāʾ-al-Din ʿAṭā-Malek Jovayni.

  • JOVIAN

    Erich Kettenhofen

    (Flavius Iovianus; 331-364), Roman emperor, r. 363-64. The present article confines discussion to the events related to the Persian campaign of 363.

  • JOWŠAQĀN

    Habib Borjian

    district in Isfahan Province in central Persia, best known for its carpets and for its dialect.

  • JOWŠAQĀN i. The District

    Habib Borjian

    Jowšaqān is located at 65 miles northwest of Isfahan, where the western foothills of the Karkas Mountain range break down into plain.

  • JOWŠAQĀN ii. The Dialect

    Habib Borjian

    Jowšaqāni, spoken in the township of Jowšaqān, is a variety of the local dialects of Kāšān, a subgroup of the Central Dialects. Published materials on the dialect include Ann Lambton’s brief grammar and texts and glossary, and R. Zargari’s verb forms, glossary, and idioms.

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  • JOWZJĀN

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    Arabicized form of Persian Gowzgān(ān), a district of eastern Khorasan in early Islamic times, now roughly corresponding to the northwest of modern Afghanistan.

  • JOWZJĀNI, ABU ʿOBAYD

    Robert Wisnovsky

    (Juzjāni), ABU ʿOBAYD ʿABD-AL-WĀḤED b. Moḥammad, companion, literary secretary, and biographer of Avicenna.

  • JOWZJĀNI, MIR JUJOK

    R. D. McChesney

    a late 16th-century literary figure given the title malek al-šoʿarāʾ at Balkh by the Shibanid (Šaybānid) ruler there, ʿAbd-al-Moʾmen Khan (r. at Balkh 1583-98).

  • JUB-E GOWHAR

    Bruno Overlaet

    an archeological site in the Eyvān plain, Ilām province (Poštkuh, Lorestān). A total of sixty-six tombs of a partially plundered graveyard were excavated in 1977 by the Belgian Archeological Mission in Iran, directed by Louis Vanden Berghe.

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  • JUBAN

    Ali Hakemi

    village and excavation site in Gilan Province. It is located 54 km south of Rasht, 4 km south of Kalvarz, and 12 km from Rudbār. In 1966, after three months of excavations (mid-spring to mid-summer), the archeological association of Rudbār discovered here the remains of a civilization dating from the beginning to the middle of the first millennium BCE.

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  • JUBĀRA

    cross-reference

    See ISFAHAN xviii. JEWISH COMMUNITY

  • JUDAKI

    Pierre Oberling

    a small Lor tribe of the Ḵorramābād region in western Persia.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES

    Multiple Authors

     OF IRAN, one of the oldest Jewish populations in the Diaspora. 

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES viii. JUDEO-PERSIAN LANGUAGE

    Thamar E. Gindin

    a group of very similar, usually mutually comprehensible, dialects of Persian, spoken or written by Jews in greater Iran over a period of more than a millennium.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES i. INTRODUCTION

    Houman Sarshar

    Jewish communities have been living upon the Persian plateau since ca. 721 BCE, when King Sargon II (r. 721-705 BCE) relocated large communities of conquered Israelites.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES ii. ACHAEMENID PERIOD

    Mayer I. Gruber

    The most significant chapter in the story of Jews and Judaism in Persia began 15 March 597 BCE, when King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylonia conquered Jerusalem and carried away as captives 10,000 Jews from Jerusalem and Judah, including King Jehoiachin of Judah.

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  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES iii. PARTHIAN AND SASANIAN PERIODS

    Jacob Neusner

    By the time the Parthians reached Babylonia, Jews had lived there, under Babylonian, Achaemenid, and Seleucid rule for more than four and a half centuries.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES iv. MEDIEVAL TO LATE 18TH CENTURY

    Vera Basch Moreen

    From ancient times Iranian Jews formed communities in most of the major towns, villages, and regions of the Persianate world. Between the 8th and 10th centuries, Iraq and Iran, then among the richest areas in the world, contained very large and prosperous Jewish populations.

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  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES v. QAJAR PERIOD (1)

    Daniel Tsadik

    The socio-economic and legal status of the Jews of Iran in early Qajar times was, to an extent, a continuation of the legacy of Safavid times. With the passage of time, however, and largely due to the increasing intervention of the great powers and foreign Jews, certain changes started to be seen.

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  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES v. QAJAR PERIOD (2)

    Mehrdad Amanat

    In the latter part of the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries there occurred a relatively widespread mass movement of Persian Jews to the Bahai community.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES vi. THE PAHLAVI ERA (1925-1979)

    Orly R. Rahimiyan

    During this period, the government obstructed Jewish emigration to then Palestine. Zionist institutions in London and the Iranian Foreign Ministry engaged in heated arguments over the total ban on emigration to Palestine and on the use of Iranian soil by Russian Jews as a transit station on their way to Palestine.

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  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES vii. THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC

    Cross-Reference

    See forthcoming online.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES ix. JUDEO-PERSIAN LITERATURE

    Amnon Netzer

    Most of the inscriptions and documents written in Judeo-Persian at the beginning of the Islamic period were discovered in the 19th century. They are important for the study of the development of early New Persian, and their existence proves that Jews lived and were active in all areas within and beyond the borders of historical Persia.

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  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES x. JUDEO-PERSIAN JARGON (LOTERĀʾI)

    Ehsan Yarshater

    Loterāʾi is the secret jargon used by the Jewish communities of Iran and Afghanistan when they do not want the content of their talk to be understood by non-Jews.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES xi. MUSIC (1)

    Houman Sarshar

    This section is divided into four sub-sections: introduction, religious music, para-liturgical music, and secular Persian Jewish music.

  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES xi. MUSIC (2)

    Houman Sarshar

    This section is divided into: moṭrebs (hired popular musicians), Persian classical music, instrument makers, and popular music. Existing scholarship and historical documents suggest that Jews were the most prevalent minority engaged as moṭrebs.

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  • JUDEO-PERSIAN COMMUNITIES xii. PERSIAN CONTRIBUTION TO JUDAISM

    Jacob Neusner

    While the Jews of the Parthian and Sasanian empires spoke (eastern) Aramaic, not Middle Persian, Persian influence on Judaism through the Babylonian Talmud (Bavli) is by no means negligible.

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS

    Multiple Authors

    i. Achaemenid systems.  ii. Parthian and Sasanian judicial system. iii. Sasanian legal system. iv. Judicial system, advent of Islam through the 19th century. v. Judicial system, 20th century. vi. Legal system, Islamic period.

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS i. ACHAEMENID JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS

    F. Rachel Magdalene

    This article will address principally the sources of our knowledge of the judicial and legal system in the Achaemenid period, as well as the nature of the court system, which persons had standing to sue, and legal procedure.

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS ii. PARTHIAN AND SASANIAN JUDICIAL SYSTEMS

    Mansour Shaki

    In Sasanian times, and by extrapolation in previous periods, there were courts of justice at various levels all over the empire, in every rural area, district, and city.

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS iii. SASANIAN LEGAL SYSTEM

    Maria Macuch

    A great number of treatises on jurisprudence must have existed in the Sasanian age, called dādestān-nāmag “Lawbooks,” but only one text from this period has survived.

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS iv. JUDICIAL SYSTEM FROM THE ADVENT OF ISLAM THROUGH THE 19TH CENTURY

    Willem Floor

    From the beginning of Islamic rule in Persia, a secular and a religious judiciary co-existed: the ʿorfi court applying the common law, the tribunal of religious judge (qāẓi) applying the sacred law (šariʿa).

  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS v. JUDICIAL SYSTEM IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Willem Floor

    Twentieth-century Iran experienced dramatic changes to its judicial system during the following periods: (1) Constitutional Period, (2) Pahlavi Period, (3) Post-revolution Period. Judges still applied pre-revolution laws and regulations until 11 August 1982, when Ayatollah Khomeini ordered judges to use their knowledge of Islamic law in cases where no new Islamic laws had yet been formulated.

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  • JUDICIAL AND LEGAL SYSTEMS vi. LEGAL SYSTEM, ISLAMIC PERIOD

    Cross-Reference

    See forthcoming, online. See also AḴBĀRIYA; CIVIL CODE; CONSTITUTION; CONTRACT; FEQHHADITH.

  • JUKES, ANDREW

    Shireen Mahdavi

    British East India Company surgeon and political agent (1774-1821).

  • JULFA

    Multiple Authors

    short for New Julfa, a large settlement on the southwestern edge of Isfahan, established by Armenian refugees in 1605. The modern town is still mostly populated by Armenians.

  • JULFA i. SAFAVID PERIOD

    Vazken S. Ghougassian

    The original Julfa (Arm. ǰuła) is a very old village in the province of Nakhijevan (Naḵjavān), in historical Armenia.  In early summer of 1605, the Julfa deportees to Iran were given temporary shelter in Isfahan, and they began with the building of New Julfa on the right bank of the Zāyandarud. For the first decades after its foundation, New Julfa was exclusively populated by Armenians from Old Julfa.

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  • JULFA ii. THE 18TH AND THE 19TH CENTURY

    Vazken S. Ghougassian

    The Afghan occupation of Isfahan between 1722 and 1729 struck a most devastating blow to the Armenians of New Julfa, although the city was spared total destruction and massive killings of its population. Nāder Shah Afšār (d. 1747) was even more brutal. Karim Khan Zand (d. 1779) treated the Armenian community fairly well and tried to encourage the return of expatriate Julfan merchants.

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  • JULFA iii. THE 20TH CENTURY

    Vazken S. Ghougassian

    The Constitutional Revolution of 1905-11 had a profound impact on Persian society as a whole. Armenians were actively involved in the constitutional movement.

  • JULFA iv. ARCHITECTURE AND PAINTING

    Armen Haghnazarian

    By 1640 New Julfa had grown into an important cultural center with many public buildings, including churches, markets, and bath houses.

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  • JULFA v. ARMENIANS IN INDIA

    Sebouh Aslanian

    In the 17th century, Julfan merchants expanded their trade network in South Asia, and at the beginning of the 18th century the Primate of New Julfa had jurisdiction over the Armenian congregations in India and Java.

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  • JULIAN

    Erich Kettenhofen

    (Flavius Claudius Iulianus), Roman emperor (r. 361-63). The present article deals only with Julian’s military campaign against the Sasanians up to his death.

  • JUNGE, PETER JULIUS

    A. Shapur Shahbazi

    German ancient historian and Iranologist (1913-1943).

  • JUNKER, HEINRICH FRANZ JOSEF

    Werner Sundermann

    Junker chose as the subject of his thesis one of the most difficult and linguistically important Pahlavi texts, the Middle Persian dictionary of heterograms (a most appropriate term applied by Junker to Middle Iranian Aramaic spellings) and their eteographic explanations, commonly known as Frahang ī pahlawīg.

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  • JUSTI, FERDINAND (WILHELM JAKOB)

    Rüdiger Schmitt

    German scholar of Oriental, particularly Iranian, studies, comparative philologist, and folklorist (1837-1907).

  • JUSTINIAN I

    Erich Kettenhofen

    (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus), Eastern Roman emperor, 527-65; his rule was marked by several military conflicts with the Sasanian empire under Kawād I and Chosroes (Ḵosrow) I.

  • JUYBĀRIS

    R. D. McChesney

    prominent Bukharan family dynasty, whose leading social position lasted more than 500 years. One of the foundations of the family’s status was spiritual.

  • J~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter J entries.