Table of Contents

  • FOQAHA

    Cross-Reference

    plural of faqih “Islamic jurist.” See  FEQH.

  • FOQQĀʿ

    Sayyed Mohammad Dabirsiaghi

    Early dictionaries describe foqqāʿ as a kind of barley wine or beer but the semantic range later expanded to include juices from dried raisins, fruits, honey, and other ingredients. Because the liquid was not allowed to ferment, a distinction was often drawn between foqqāʿ as non-alcoholic and nabīd,ò which was fermented and could therefore be intoxicating.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • FORĀT

    Cross-reference

    See EUPHRATES.

  • FORĀT B. EBRĀHĪM

    Meir M. Bar-Asher

    Shiʿite(most probably Imami) Koran commentator and Hadith scholar. The dates of his birth and death are unknown, but the time he flourished can be estimated by the dates of the scholars whom he quoted or who transmitted Hadith on his authority.

  • FORĀT MAYSĀN

    Cross-reference

    See BAHMAN ARDAŠĪR.

  • FOREIGN AFFAIRS

    Willem Floor

    administration and ministry of foreign affairs.

  • FOREIGN EXCHANGE

    Cross-reference

    See ECONOMY.

  • FOREIGN POLICY

    Cross-Reference

    See FOREIGN AFFAIRS; ANGLO-IRANIAN RELATIONS; ANGLO-PERSIAN AGREEMENT of 1919; ANGLO-PERSIAN WAR; ANGLO-RUSSIAN CONVENTION of 1907; and under individual countries and treaties.

  • FORESTS AND FORESTRY

    Multiple Authors

    i. Forests and Forestry in Persia. ii. Forests and Forestry in Afghanistan.

  • FORESTS AND FORESTRY i. In Persia

    Eckart Ehlers

    Less than 2 percent of Persia is covered by forests, while another 8 to 9 percent may be regarded as depleted former forest areas. Altogether, 150-160,000 km² are, or have been, densely forested areas.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.