Table of Contents

  • FRENCH REVOLUTION

    Cross-reference

    and Persia. See FRANCE ii and FRANCE iii.

  • FRIDAY PRAYERS

    Cross-Reference

    leader of the congregational prayer performed at midday on Fridays. See EMĀM-E JOMʿA.

  • FRIT WARES

    Cross-reference

    See CERAMICS xiv.

  • FROGS

    Cross-reference

    See AMPHIBIANS.

  • FRONTIERS

    Cross-reference

    See BOUNDARIES.

  • FRUIT

    Hūšang Aʿlam

    (mīva). Jean Chardin (1643-1713) reported (p. 24) that “in Persia there were all the same kinds of fruit as in Europe and many others, all incomparatively delicious.” He noted the great variety of melons, cucumbers, grapes, dates, apricots, pomegranates, apples, pears, oranges, quinces, prunes, figs, pistachios, almonds, walnuts, filberts, and olives.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • FRYER, JOHN

    Michael J. Franklin

    (b. ca. 1650; d. 1733), British travel-writer and doctor. His writings  display a lively curiosity, which, sharpened by his scientific training, produces accurate observations in geology, meteorology, and all aspects of natural history.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • FŪLĀD-ZEREH

    Mahmoud Omidsalar

    lit. “[possessing] steel armor,” the name of a hideous demon in the story of Amīr Arsalān.

  • FŪMAN

    Marcel Bazin

    town and district in western Gīlān, 21 km west-southwest of Rašt, on the left bank of Gāzrūdbār river. An important town in medieval times, Fūman is again a commercial and administrative center, with a very active Tuesday market and a large tea-processing factory.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • FŪMANĪ, ʿABD-AL-FATTĀḤ

    Sholeh Quinn

    author of the Tārīḵ-e Gīlān, a local history of Gīlān covering the years 1517-1628.

  • FUMITORY

    M. H. Bokhari and W. Frey

    or šāhtara; term used for two species of plants of the genus Fumaria in Persia, Fumaria officinalis and Fumaria parviflora.

  • FUNERAL CUSTOMS

    Cross-reference

    See BURIAL; CORPSE.

  • FŪŠANJ

    C. Edmund Bosworth

    a town of medieval eastern Khorasan, situated just to the south of the Harīrūd River, and variously described in the sources as being between six and ten farsaḵs to the west-southwest of Herat.

  • FŪŠANJĪ HERAVĪ, ABU’L-ḤASAN ʿALĪ,

    Gerhard Böwering

    correctly BŪŠANJĪ; b. Aḥmad b. Sahl (d. 958/959), an important exponent of the fetyān (javān-mardān) of Khorasan.

  • F~ CAPTIONS OF ILLUSTRATIONS

    Cross-Reference

    list of all the figure and plate images in the letter F entries.