Table of Contents

  • FORGERIES iii. OF ISLAMIC ART, iv. OF ISLAMIC MANUSCRIPTS

    Sheila S. Blair, Francis Richard

    Medieval Arabic and Persian literature contain numerous anecdotes about the forging of manuscripts, but it was only in the late 19th century that forging Persian works of Islamic art became a widespread phenomenon.

  • FORṢAT-AL-DAWLA

    Manouchehr Kasheff

    (1854-1920), pen name of the poet, scholar, and artist Mīrzā Moḥammad-Naṣīr Ḥosaynī Šīrāzī. In 1908 he was appointed the first director of the Shiraz branch of the Department of Education. In Fārs he arranged for the establishment of modern schools and for the education of tribal children.

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  • FORTIFICATIONS

    Wolfram Kleiss

    The present article deals with the fortified passages and defenses that are implied under the term bārū. Certain passes in Persia still feature barriers going back to the Achaemenid period. 

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  • FORTRESSES

    Cross-reference

    See CASTLES.

  • FORŪD (1)

    Jean During

    (lit. descent; Forūvard in Bukharian tradition, Ayaq in Azeri moqām), general designation of the concluding motif of a melodic sequence in Persian music.

  • FORŪD (2)

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    or Ferōd; son of Sīāvaḵš and half brother of Kay Ḵosrow.

  • FORŪGĪ BESṬĀMĪ, ʿABBĀS

    Heshmat Moayyad

    or BASṬĀMĪ (b. Karbalā, 1798; d. Tehran, 1857), 19th-century poet.

  • FORŪGĪ, ABU'L-ḤASAN

    Bagher Agheli

    (b. Isfahan, 1884; d. Tehran, 1960), educator and author.

  • FORŪGĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ʿALĪ ḎOKĀʾ-AL-MOLK

    Fakhreddin Azimi, Iraj Afshar

    (1877-1942), statesman, scholar, and man of letters. Forūḡī’s personal integrity and honesty have rarely been disputed, even by his critics. Others have blamed him for helping to bring about Reżā Shah’s regime and continuing to serve it despite its blatant misdeeds.

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  • FORŪGĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN Khan Ḏokāʾ-al-Molk

    Manouchehr Kasheff

    (b. Isfahan, 1839; d. Tehran, 1907), poet, journalist, literateur, translator, and author.