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    Manouchehr Kasheff

    (1854-1920), pen name of the poet, scholar, and artist Mīrzā Moḥammad-Naṣīr Ḥosaynī Šīrāzī. In 1908 he was appointed the first director of the Shiraz branch of the Department of Education. In Fārs he arranged for the establishment of modern schools and for the education of tribal children.

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    Wolfram Kleiss

    The present article deals with the fortified passages and defenses that are implied under the term bārū. Certain passes in Persia still feature barriers going back to the Achaemenid period. 

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    See CASTLES.

  • FORŪD (1)

    Jean During

    (lit. descent; Forūvard in Bukharian tradition, Ayaq in Azeri moqām), general designation of the concluding motif of a melodic sequence in Persian music.

  • FORŪD (2)

    Djalal Khaleghi-Motlagh

    or Ferōd; son of Sīāvaḵš and half brother of Kay Ḵosrow.


    Heshmat Moayyad

    or BASṬĀMĪ (b. Karbalā, 1798; d. Tehran, 1857), 19th-century poet.


    Bagher Agheli

    (b. Isfahan, 1884; d. Tehran, 1960), educator and author.


    Fakhreddin Azimi, Iraj Afshar

    (1877-1942), statesman, scholar, and man of letters. Forūḡī’s personal integrity and honesty have rarely been disputed, even by his critics. Others have blamed him for helping to bring about Reżā Shah’s regime and continuing to serve it despite its blatant misdeeds.

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  • FORŪGĪ, MOḤAMMAD-ḤOSAYN Khan Ḏokāʾ-al-Molk

    Manouchehr Kasheff

    (b. Isfahan, 1839; d. Tehran, 1907), poet, journalist, literateur, translator, and author.


    Mina Marefat and EIr, Richard N. Frye

    (1907-1983), pioneer of modern architecture in Persia, an influential professor of architecture at the University of Tehran, and a noted collector of Persian art. He was imprisoned in 1979 after the revolution, and his art collection was placed in the Archaeological Museum, Tehran.

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