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Abolala Soudavar, Oscar White Muscarella
of art objects and manuscripts. Early in the Islamic era, Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī described in his al-Aṯār al-bāqīa how emergent Islamic rulers of Persia had forged their lineage and invented connections with previous dynasties in order to affirm their own legitimacy.
Sheila S. Blair, Francis Richard
Medieval Arabic and Persian literature contain numerous anecdotes about the forging of manuscripts, but it was only in the late 19th century that forging Persian works of Islamic art became a widespread phenomenon.
(1854-1920), pen name of the poet, scholar, and artist Mīrzā Moḥammad-Naṣīr Ḥosaynī Šīrāzī. In 1908 he was appointed the first director of the Shiraz branch of the Department of Education. In Fārs he arranged for the establishment of modern schools and for the education of tribal children.This Article Has Images/Tables.
The present article deals with the fortified passages and defenses that are implied under the term bārū. Certain passes in Persia still feature barriers going back to the Achaemenid period.This Article Has Images/Tables.
(lit. descent; Forūvard in Bukharian tradition, Ayaq in Azeri moqām), general designation of the concluding motif of a melodic sequence in Persian music.
or Ferōd; son of Sīāvaḵš and half brother of Kay Ḵosrow.
or BASṬĀMĪ (b. Karbalā, 1798; d. Tehran, 1857), 19th-century poet.
(b. Isfahan, 1884; d. Tehran, 1960), educator and author.
Fakhreddin Azimi, Iraj Afshar
(1877-1942), statesman, scholar, and man of letters. Forūḡī’s personal integrity and honesty have rarely been disputed, even by his critics. Others have blamed him for helping to bring about Reżā Shah’s regime and continuing to serve it despite its blatant misdeeds.This Article Has Images/Tables.