Table of Contents

  • FORESTS AND FORESTRY i. In Persia

    Eckart Ehlers

    Less than 2 percent of Persia is covered by forests, while another 8 to 9 percent may be regarded as depleted former forest areas. Altogether, 150-160,000 km² are, or have been, densely forested areas.

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  • FORESTS AND FORESTRY ii. In Afghanistan

    Cross-Reference

    See AFGHANISTAN xiii.

  • FORGERIES

    Multiple Authors

    of art objects and manuscripts. i. Introduction. ii. Of Pre-Islamic Art Objects. iii. Of Islamic Art. iv. Of Manuscripts.

  • FORGERIES i. INTRODUCTION

    Abolala Soudavar

    Early in the Islamic era, Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī described in his al-Aṯār al-bāqīa how emergent Islamic rulers of Persia had forged their lineage and invented connections with previous dynasties in order to affirm their own legitimacy.

  • FORGERIES ii. OF PRE-ISLAMIC ART OBJECTS

    Oscar White Muscarella

    Two kinds of forgeries affect the study of ancient Iranian artifacts: the modern creation of an object falsely presented as an ancient artifact, and the assertion that an unexcavated object comes from a specifically named site, thereby effectively forging its provenience.

  • FORGERIES iii. OF ISLAMIC ART

    Sheila S. Blair

    Medieval Arabic and Persian literature contain numerous anecdotes about the forging of manuscripts, but it was only in the late 19th century that forging Persian works of Islamic art became a widespread phenomenon.

  • FORGERIES iv. OF ISLAMIC MANUSCRIPTS

    Francis Richard

    Manuscripts in Arabic script have been forged or tampered with to enhance the value of a manuscript and to prove its antiquity.

  • FORṢAT-AL-DAWLA

    Manouchehr Kasheff

    (1854-1920), pen name of the poet, scholar, and artist Mīrzā Moḥammad-Naṣīr Ḥosaynī Šīrāzī. In 1908 he was appointed the first director of the Shiraz branch of the Department of Education. In Fārs he arranged for the establishment of modern schools and for the education of tribal children.

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  • FORTIFICATIONS

    Wolfram Kleiss

    The present article deals with the fortified passages and defenses that are implied under the term bārū. Certain passes in Persia still feature barriers going back to the Achaemenid period. 

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  • FORTRESSES

    Cross-reference

    See CASTLES.