Table of Contents

  • FOLKLORE STUDIES

    Multiple Authors

    aims to provide a summary of folklore studies made in or about the Iranian world. It encompasses a wide field of varying notions, ranging from popular beliefs and customs to myths, legends and other genres of oral literature.

  • FOLKLORE STUDIES i. OF PERSIA

    Ulrich Marzolph

    The term folklore denotes, in a very broad sense, the traditional cultural expression of any notable group of people, not necessarily belonging to a specific social stratum.

  • FOLKLORE STUDIES ii. OF AFGHANISTAN

    Margaret A. Mills and Abdul Ali Ahrary

    Folklore may be defined as roughly comprising the oral-traditional component of culture, complementary or competitive with an official, canonical “written” culture, but this definition presents certain problems.

  • FOLŪS

    Cross-reference

    See CASSIA.

  • FONDOQESTĀN

    B. A. Litvinskiĭ

    (FONDUKISTAN), early medieval settlement and Buddhist monastery in Afghanistan, in the province of Parvān (Parwan). The site is usually dated to the 7th century CE on the evidence of artistic style and numismatic finds, the oldest of which is from 689 C.E. However, the shape and the decorations of the stupa suggest that the complex can be even earlier.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • FOOD

    Cross-reference

    See COOKING.

  • FOOTBALL

    Houchang Chehabi

    (soccer). The game of football was introduced to Persia in the first two decades of the 20th century by British residents and American missionaries. 

  • FOQQĀʿ

    Sayyed Mohammad Dabirsiaghi

    Early dictionaries describe foqqāʿ as a kind of barley wine or beer but the semantic range later expanded to include juices from dried raisins, fruits, honey, and other ingredients. Because the liquid was not allowed to ferment, a distinction was often drawn between foqqāʿ as non-alcoholic and nabīd,ò which was fermented and could therefore be intoxicating.

    This Article Has Images/Tables.
  • FORĀT

    Cross-reference

    See EUPHRATES.

  • FORĀT B. EBRĀHĪM

    Meir M. Bar-Asher

    Shiʿite(most probably Imami) Koran commentator and Hadith scholar. The dates of his birth and death are unknown, but the time he flourished can be estimated by the dates of the scholars whom he quoted or who transmitted Hadith on his authority.